Medline ® Abstracts for References 1-6
of 'Patient education: Heart failure (Beyond the Basics)'
The epidemiology of heart failure: the Framingham Study.
Ho KK, Pinsky JL, Kannel WB, Levy D
J Am Coll Cardiol. 1993;22(4 Suppl A):6A.
Congestive heart failure has become an increasingly frequent reason for hospital admission during the last 2 decades and clearly represents a major health problem. Data from the Framingham Heart Study indicate that the incidence of congestive heart failure increases with age and is higher in men than in women. Hypertension and coronary heart disease are the two most common conditions predating its onset. Diabetes mellitus and electrocardiographic left ventricular hypertrophy are also associated with an increased risk of heart failure. During the 1980s, the annual age-adjusted incidence of congestive heart failure among persons aged>or = 45 years was 7.2 cases/1,000 in men and 4.7 cases/1,000 in women, whereas the age-adjusted prevalence of overt heart failure was 24/1,000 in men and 25/1,000 in women. Despite improved treatments for ischemic heart disease and hypertension, the age-adjusted incidence of heart failure has declined by only 11%/calendar decade in men and by 17%/calendar decade in women during a 40-year period of observation. In addition, congestive heart failure remains highly lethal, with a median survival time of 1.7 years in men and 3.2 years in women and a 5-year survival rate of 25% in men and 38% in women.
Charles A. Dana Research Institute, Boston, Massachusetts.
Changing epidemiological features of cardiac failure.
Kannel WB, Ho K, Thom T
Br Heart J. 1994;72(2 Suppl):S3.
Department of Medicine, Boston University School of Medicine.
Konstam M, Dracup K, Baker D, et al. Heart failure: evaluation and care of patients with left ventricular systolic dysfunction. Clinical practice guideline No. 11 AHCPR publication No. 94-0612. Agency for Health Care Policy and Research, Rockville, MD 1994.
no abstract available
The progression from hypertension to congestive heart failure.
Levy D, Larson MG, Vasan RS, Kannel WB, Ho KK
OBJECTIVES: - To study the relative and population-attributable risks of hypertension for the development of congestive heart failure (CHF), to assess the time course of progression from hypertension to CHF, and to identify risk factors that contribute to the development of overt heart failure in hypertensive subjects.
DESIGN: - Inception cohort study.
SETTING: - General community.
PARTICIPANTS: - Original Framingham Heart Study and Framingham Offspring Study participants aged 40 to 89 years and free of CHF. To reflect more contemporary experience, the starting point of this study was January 1, 1970.
EXPOSURE MEASURES: - Hypertension (blood pressure of at least 140 mm Hg systolic or 90 mm Hg diastolic or current use of medications for treatment of high blood pressure) and other potential CHF risk factors were assessed at periodic clinic examinations.
OUTCOME MEASURE: - The development of CHF.
RESULTS: - A total of 5143 eligible subjects contributed 72422 person-years of observation. During up to 20.1 years of follow-up (mean, 14.1 years), there were 392 new cases of heart failure; in 91% (357/392), hypertension antedated the development of heart failure. Adjusting for age and heart failure risk factors in proportional hazards regression models, the hazard for developing heart failure in hypertensive compared with normotensive subjects was about 2-fold in men and 3-fold in women. Multivariable analyses revealed that hypertension had a high population-attributable risk for CHF, accounting for 39% of cases in men and 59% in women. Among hypertensive subjects, myocardial infarction, diabetes, left ventricular hypertrophy, and valvular heart disease were predictive of increased risk for CHF in both sexes. Survival following the onset of hypertensive CHF was bleak; only 24% of men and 31% of women survived 5 years.
CONCLUSIONS: - Hypertension was the most common risk factor for CHF, and it contributed a large proportion of heart failure cases in this population-based sample. Preventive strategies directed toward earlier and more aggressive blood pressure control are likely to offer the greatest promise for reducing the incidence of CHF and its associated mortality.
Framingham (Mass) Heart Study, Massachusetts 01701, USA.
Epidemiology, pathophysiology, and etiology of congestive heart failure in older adults.
J Am Geriatr Soc. 1997;45(8):968.
OBJECTIVES: To review the epidemiology, pathophysiology, and etiology of congestive heart failure (CHF) in older adults.
METHODS: Published reports relevant to the epidemiology, pathophysiology, and etiology of CHF were systematically reviewed. Studies involving older adults and more recent studies were emphasized.
RESULTS: More than 75% of patients with CHF in the United States are older than 65 years of age, and CHF is the leading cause of hospitalization in older adults. CHF is also a major cause of chronic disability, and annual expenditures for CHF currently exceed $10 billion. In addition, both the incidence and prevalence of CHF are increasing, largely as a result of the aging of the population. Older adults are predisposed to developing CHF as a result of age-related changes in the cardiovascular system and the high prevalence of hypertension, coronary artery disease, and valvular heart disease in this age group. Although the fundamental pathophysiology of CHF is similar in younger and older patients, older individuals are more prone to develop CHF in the setting of preserved left ventricular systolic function. This syndrome, referred to asdiastolic heart failure, accounts for up to 50% of all cases of CHF in adults more than 65 years of age. Coronary heart disease and hypertension are the most common etiologies of CHF in older adults, and they often coexist. Valvular heart disease, especially aortic stenosis and mitral regurgitation, are also common in older adults, whereas nonischemic dilated cardiomyopathy, hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, and restrictive cardiomyopathy occur less frequently.
CONCLUSIONS: Congestive heart failure is a major public health problem in the United States today as a result of its high and increasing prevalence in the older population as well as its substantial impact on healthcare costs and quality of life. There is an urgent need to develop more effective strategies for the prevention and treatment of CHF in older individuals.
Geriatric Cardiology Section, Barnes-Jewish Hospital, Washington University Medical Center, St. Louis, Missouri 63110, USA.
Prevalence, clinical features and prognosis of diastolic heart failure: an epidemiologic perspective.
Vasan RS, Benjamin EJ, Levy D
J Am Coll Cardiol. 1995;26(7):1565.
Numerous reports suggest that about one-third of patients with congestive heart failure do not have any abnormality of left ventricular systolic function. These patients presumably have heart failure on the basis of ventricular diastolic dysfunction. Our objective was to develop a comprehensive overview of published reports of the prevalence, clinical features and prognosis of diastolic heart failure and to offer recommendations for future studies. Thirty-one studies of patients with congestive heart failure with normal left ventricular systolic function were published in the time period from January 1970 through March 1995. These studies were identified with the use of computer-based searches in relevant data bases. Among patients with congestive heart failure, the prevalence of normal ventricular systolic performance in the published reports varies widely from 13% to 74%; the reported annual mortality rate also varies from 1.3% to 17.5%. The criteria for congestive heart failure, its chronicity and the age of the study sample affect the reported prevalence and prognosis of the disorder. The clinical signs and symptoms of diastolic heart failure are similar to those of patients with systolic heart failure, underscoring the need for evaluation of ventricular systolic function in patients with congestive heart failure. In the absence of any large-scale randomized clinical trial targeting these patients, the optimal treatment of diastolic heart failure is unclear. We conclude that the heterogeneity in previous studies of diastolic heart failure hinders the comparison of published reports. There is a need to conduct prospective, community-based investigations to better characterize the incidence, prevalence and natural history of diastolic heart failure. Randomized clinical trials are needed to determine optimal treatment strategies.
Framingham Heart Study, Massachusetts 01701, USA.