Medline ® Abstracts for References 2,14
of 'Exercise in the treatment and prevention of hypertension'
Physical fitness and incidence of hypertension in healthy normotensive men and women.
Blair SN, Goodyear NN, Gibbons LW, Cooper KH
We measured physical fitness, assessed by maximal treadmill testing in 4,820 men and 1,219 women aged 20 to 65 years. Participants had no history of cardiovascular disease and were normotensive at baseline. We followed up these persons for one to 12 years (median, four years) for the development of hypertension. Multiple logistic risk analysis was used to estimate the independent contribution of physical fitness to risk of becoming hypertensive. After adjustment for sex, age, follow-up interval, baseline blood pressure, and baseline body-mass index, persons with low levels of physical fitness (72% of the group) had a relative risk of 1.52 for the development of hypertension when compared with highly fit persons. Risk of hypertension developing also increased substantially with increased baseline blood pressure.
Low physical activity as a predictor for antihypertensive drug treatment in 25-64-year-old populations in eastern and south-western Finland.
Barengo NC, Hu G, Kastarinen M, Lakka TA, Pekkarinen H, Nissinen A, Tuomilehto J
J Hypertens. 2005;23(2):293.
OBJECTIVE: To determine whether low leisure-time physical activity, occupational physical activity and commuting activity independently increase the risk of hypertension when adjusted for most risk factors for hypertension and for different forms of physical activity.
DESIGN: Population-based prospective cohort study.
SETTING: Eastern and south-western Finland.
PARTICIPANTS: Men (n = 5935) and women (n = 6227) aged 25-64 years.
MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE: Initiation of free-of-charge medication for hypertension during a mean follow-up time of 11.3 years.
RESULTS: Men with high leisure-time physical activity had a reduced risk of hypertension when adjustment had been made for age, area and year of survey, education, smoking, alcohol intake, baseline systolic blood pressure (SBP), body mass index (BMI), commuting activity and occupational physical activity [hazard ratio (HR) 0.79; 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.63 to 0.99]. Women with high leisure-time physical activity had a reduced risk of hypertension when adjusted for age, area and time of survey (HR 0.65; 95% CI 0.46 to 0.91). This association was no longer significant when further adjustments were made for other covariates (HR 0.73; 95% CI 0.52 to 1.03). High occupational physical activity reduced the risk of hypertension only among men and women combined when adjustment was made for age, area and time of survey, education, smoking and alcohol intake, in addition to baseline SBP, BMI, commuting activity and leisure-time physical activity (HR 0.83; 95% CI 0.72 to 0.96). Commuting activity was not associated with risk of hypertension in multivariate models.
CONCLUSION: High levels of leisure-time physical activity are associated with a reduced risk of hypertension, independently of most common risk factors for hypertension, occupational physical activity and commuting activity. Promoting leisure-time physical activity is essential to prevent hypertension.
Department of Public Health and General Practice, University of Kuopio, Kuopio, Finland. firstname.lastname@example.org