Official reprint from UpToDate®
www.uptodate.com ©2017 UpToDate, Inc. and/or its affiliates. All Rights Reserved.

Evaluation of inguinal swelling in children

David J Mathison, MD, MBA
Section Editor
George A Woodward, MD
Deputy Editor
James F Wiley, II, MD, MPH


This discussion will be limited to an approach to swelling of the inguinal area.

Evaluation and treatment of hernias, lymphadenopathy, cryptorchidism, and isolated scrotal swelling in children are discussed separately:

(See "Inguinal hernia in children".)

(See "Peripheral lymphadenopathy in children: Evaluation and diagnostic approach".)

(See "Undescended testes (cryptorchidism) in children: Clinical features and evaluation" and "Undescended testes (cryptorchidism) in children: Management".)

To continue reading this article, you must log in with your personal, hospital, or group practice subscription. For more information on subscription options, click below on the option that best describes you:

Subscribers log in here

Literature review current through: Oct 2017. | This topic last updated: Jul 31, 2017.
The content on the UpToDate website is not intended nor recommended as a substitute for medical advice, diagnosis, or treatment. Always seek the advice of your own physician or other qualified health care professional regarding any medical questions or conditions. The use of this website is governed by the UpToDate Terms of Use ©2017 UpToDate, Inc.
  1. Huang CS, Luo CC, Chao HC, et al. The presentation of asymptomatic palpable movable mass in female inguinal hernia. Eur J Pediatr 2003; 162:493.
  2. Ollero Fresno JC, Alvarez M, Sanchez M, Rollán V. Femoral hernia in childhood: review of 38 cases. Pediatr Surg Int 1997; 12:520.
  3. Chapman WH, Barcia PJ. Femoral hernia in children: an infrequent problem revisited. Mil Med 1991; 156:631.
  4. Nayeem N. Femoral hernia in children. Br J Clin Pract 1990; 44:383.
  5. Tsushimi T, Takahashi T, Gohra H, et al. A case of incarcerated femoral hernia in an infant. J Pediatr Surg 2005; 40:581.
  6. Rathaus V, Konen O, Shapiro M, et al. Ultrasound features of spermatic cord hydrocele in children. Br J Radiol 2001; 74:818.
  7. Chang YT, Lee JY, Wang JY, et al. Hydrocele of the spermatic cord in infants and children: its particular characteristics. Urology 2010; 76:82.
  8. Martin LC, Share JC, Peters C, Atala A. Hydrocele of the spermatic cord: embryology and ultrasonographic appearance. Pediatr Radiol 1996; 26:528.
  9. Tsurukiri J, Kaneko N, Mishima S. Bilateral traumatic testicular dislocation. Urology 2011; 78:1306.
  10. Tsai HN, Wu WJ, Huang SP, et al. Bilateral traumatic testicular dislocation--a case report. Kaohsiung J Med Sci 2002; 18:95.
  11. Bromberg W, Wong C, Kurek S, Salim A. Traumatic bilateral testicular dislocation. J Trauma 2003; 54:1009.
  12. Ko SF, Ng SH, Wan YL, et al. Testicular dislocation: an uncommon and easily overlooked complication of blunt abdominal trauma. Ann Emerg Med 2004; 43:371.
  13. Singer AJ, Das S, Gavrell GJ. Traumatic dislocation of testes. Urology 1990; 35:310.
  14. Poenaru D, Jacobs DA, Kamal I. Unusual findings in the inguinal canal: a report of four cases. Pediatr Surg Int 1999; 15:515.
  15. Aarabi S, Drugas G, Avansino JR. Mesothelial cyst presenting as an irreducible inguinal mass. J Pediatr Surg 2010; 45:e19.
  16. Leeming R, Olsen M, Ponsky JL. Inguinal dermoid cyst presenting as an incarcerated inguinal hernia. J Pediatr Surg 1992; 27:117.
  17. Prada-Arias M, Ortiz-Rey JA, Fernández-Eire P, et al. Dermoid cyst of the spermatic cord in children. J Pediatr Surg 2010; 45:2058.
  18. Zampieri N, Carabaich A, Corroppolo M, et al. Two patients with tumours presenting as inguino-scrotal masses. Eur J Cancer Care (Engl) 2008; 17:205.
  19. Karplus G, Krasin MJ, Rodriguez-Galindo C, et al. Retrospective study of the surgical management and outcome of nonrhabdomyosarcoma soft tissue sarcomas of the groin and axilla in children. J Pediatr Surg 2009; 44:1972.
  20. Raney RB Jr, Crist W, Hays D, et al. Soft tissue sarcoma of the perineal region in childhood. A report from the Intergroup Rhabdomyosarcoma Studies I and II, 1972 through 1984. Cancer 1990; 65:2787.
  21. Leo ME, McManus MJ, Strawbridge LR, Kramer SA. Bilateral primary neuroblastomas in the inguinal canal. J Urol 1992; 148:135.
  22. Köseoğlu V, Akata D, Kutluk T, et al. Neuroblastoma with spermatic cord metastasis in a child: sonographic findings. J Clin Ultrasound 1999; 27:287.
  23. Cankorkmaz L, Ozer H, Guney C, et al. Amyand's hernia in the children: a single center experience. Surgery 2010; 147:140.
  24. Kynes JM, Rauth TP, McMorrow SP. Ruptured appendicitis presenting as acute scrotal swelling in a 23-month-old toddler. J Emerg Med 2012; 43:47.
  25. Matzek BA, Linklater DR. Traumatic testicular dislocation after minor trauma in a pediatric patient. J Emerg Med 2013; 45:537.
  26. Blaivas M, Sierzenski P, Lambert M. Emergency evaluation of patients presenting with acute scrotum using bedside ultrasonography. Acad Emerg Med 2001; 8:90.
  27. Cannis M, Mailhot T, Perera P. Bedside ultrasound in a case of blunt scrotal trauma. West J Emerg Med 2013; 14:127.
  28. Bomann JS, Moore C. Bedside ultrasound of a painful testicle: before and after manual detorsion by an emergency physician. Acad Emerg Med 2009; 16:366.
  29. Blaivas M, Batts M, Lambert M. Ultrasonographic diagnosis of testicular torsion by emergency physicians. Am J Emerg Med 2000; 18:198.
  30. Thimann D, Badawy M. 7-month-old male with scrotal swelling. Emerg Med J 2014; 31:521.