Enterovirus and parechovirus infections: Epidemiology and pathogenesis
- John F Modlin, MD
John F Modlin, MD
- Deputy Director, Polio Research
- Global Development
- Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation
The human enteroviruses and parechoviruses are ubiquitous viruses that are transmitted from person to person via direct and indirect routes . Polioviruses, the prototypic enteroviruses, are the cause of paralytic poliomyelitis, a disease that has been eradicated in the United States and other developed countries and is targeted for imminent global eradication.
The non-polio enteroviruses and parechoviruses are responsible for a wide spectrum of diseases in persons of all ages, although infection and illness occurs most commonly in infants and young children.
The epidemiology and pathogenesis of non-polio enterovirus and parechovirus infections are reviewed here. The clinical manifestations, diagnosis, management, and prevention of these infections are discussed in a separate topic. (See "Enterovirus and parechovirus infections: Clinical features, laboratory diagnosis, treatment, and prevention" and "Poliovirus vaccination".)
The enteroviruses and parechoviruses (as well as hepatitis A virus) are distinct genera within the Picornavirus family. The enteroviruses are divided into four species designated A through D based on homology within the RNA region encoding the VP1 capsid protein . Isolates of the same "serotype" characteristically diverge in the VP1 region by less than 25 percent and 12 percent, respectively, within corresponding nucleotide and amino acid sequences .
Originally, unique enterovirus serotypes were distinguished from one another by neutralization with specific antisera and assigned to one of five traditional sub-genera based on differences in host range and pathogenic potential [3,4]. Seventy-two serotypes were identified by conventional methods, of which 64 remain after recognition of redundant serotypes and reclassification of others.To continue reading this article, you must log in with your personal, hospital, or group practice subscription. For more information on subscription options, click below on the option that best describes you:
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