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Enterovirus and parechovirus infections: Clinical features, laboratory diagnosis, treatment, and prevention

Author
John F Modlin, MD
Section Editors
Martin S Hirsch, MD
Morven S Edwards, MD
Deputy Editor
Allyson Bloom, MD

INTRODUCTION

The human enteroviruses and parechoviruses are ubiquitous viruses found throughout the world and are transmitted from person to person chiefly through fecal-oral contact [1].

Polioviruses, the prototypic enteroviruses, are the cause of paralytic poliomyelitis, a disease that has been eradicated in the United States and other resource-rich countries (except for very rare cases that are attributable to live, attenuated polio vaccine viruses) and that has been targeted for worldwide eradication. The non-polio enteroviruses (group A and B coxsackieviruses, echoviruses, and enteroviruses) and parechoviruses are responsible for a wide spectrum of disease in persons of all ages, although infection and illness disproportionately affect infants and young children.

The clinical manifestations, laboratory diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of non-polio enterovirus and parechovirus infections are reviewed in this topic. The microbiology, epidemiology, and pathogenesis of these infections are discussed separately. (See "Enterovirus and parechovirus infections: Epidemiology and pathogenesis".)

Poliovirus infection and prevention are discussed in detail elsewhere. (See "Polio and infectious diseases of the anterior horn" and "Post-polio syndrome" and "Poliovirus vaccination".)

ENTEROVIRUS NOMENCLATURE

Changes in enterovirus taxonomy based on RNA sequence now specify that the serotypes designated as "enteroviruses" under the original classification scheme include the letter (A, B, C, or D) that identifies the species to which the serotype belongs (eg, enterovirus D68). (See "Enterovirus and parechovirus infections: Epidemiology and pathogenesis", section on 'Classification'.)

                                 

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Literature review current through: Jul 2017. | This topic last updated: Jul 10, 2017.
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