Medline ® Abstract for Reference 43
of 'Endoscopic ultrasound in the staging of exocrine pancreatic cancer'
EUS-guided fine needle aspiration of the liver: indications, yield, and safety based on an international survey of 167 cases.
tenBerge J, Hoffman BJ, Hawes RH, Van Enckevort C, Giovannini M, Erickson RA, Catalano MF, Fogel R, Mallery S, Faigel DO, Ferrari AP, Waxman I, Palazzo L, Ben-Menachem T, Jowell PS, McGrath KM, Kowalski TE, Nguyen CC, Wassef WY, Yamao K, Chak A, Greenwald BD, Woodward TA, Vilmann P, Sabbagh L, Wallace MB
Gastrointest Endosc. 2002;55(7):859.
BACKGROUND: The liver is a common site of metastases for various malignancies. EUS-guided fine needle aspiration (EUS-FNA) of liver masses has only been reported in small series from single centers.
METHODS: A retrospective questionnaire was sent by e-mail to 130 EUS-FNA centers around the world regarding indications, complications, and findings of EUS-FNA of the liver.
RESULTS: Twenty-one centers reported 167 cases of EUS-FNA of the liver. A complication was reported in 6 (4%) of 167 cases including the following: death in 1 patient with an occluding biliary stent and biliary sepsis, bleeding (1), fever (2), and pain (2). EUS-FNA diagnosed malignancy in 23 of 26 (89%) cases after nondiagnostic fine needle aspiration under transabdominal US guidance. EUS localized an unrecognized primary tumor in 17 of 33 (52%) cases in whichCT had demonstrated only liver metastases. EUS image characteristics were not predictive of malignant versus benign lesions.
CONCLUSION: EUS-guided FNA of the liver appears to be a safe procedure with a major complication rate of approximately 1%. EUS-FNA should be considered when a liver lesion is poorly accessible to US-, or CT-guided FNA should be considered when US- or CT-guided FNA fail to make a diagnosis, when a liver lesion(s) is detected (de novo) by EUS, and for investigation of possible upper GI primary tumors in the setting of liver metastases.
Medical University of South Carolina, Charleston, South Carolina, Institut Paoli-Calmettes, Marseilles, France.