Official reprint from UpToDate®
www.uptodate.com ©2017 UpToDate, Inc. and/or its affiliates. All Rights Reserved.

Medline ® Abstract for Reference 17

of 'Endoscopic management of bile duct stones: Standard techniques and mechanical lithotripsy'

Endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography with endoscopic sphincterotomy for symptomatic choledocholithiasis after recent myocardial infarction.
Cappell MS
Am J Gastroenterol. 1996;91(9):1827.
In the general population, endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) with endoscopic sphincterotomy is preferable to surgery as therapy for gallstone pancreatitis and acute cholangitis. It is particularly attractive to perform therapeutic. ERCP for symptomatic choledocholithiasis after recent myocardial infarction because of the increased risk of the alternative therapy of cholecystectomy and choledochal exploration. However, after myocardial infarction, patients might theoretically be particularly susceptible to the cardiopulmonary risks of ERCP. The safety of therapeutic ERCP after myocardial infarction is unknown, with only one previously reported case. In a review of 11,367 patients with acute myocardial infarction at four hospitals, four patients (0.04%) underwent therapeutic ERCP after recent myocardial infarction, for indications of recent biliary pancreatitis in three of the patients and recent cholangitis in all four. Cholangitis occurred before, simultaneous with, or after myocardial infarction in the four cases. Initially, the cholangitis was managed medically in three patients. The fourth patient underwent cholecystostomy with local anesthesia. ERCP was performed at 15, 25, 30, or 56 days after myocardial infarction. Endoscopic cholangiography revealed multiple choledocholithiasis in all cases. The calculi were successfully extracted by endoscopic papillotomy and by sweeping the choledochus with a balloon-tipped catheter or basket in all cases. During ERCP, the vital signs remained stable; no cardiac arrhythmias or cardiovascular complications occurred. However, one patient developed mild pancreatitis after ERCP, which rapidly resolved with medical therapy. The four patients rapidly improved after ERCP, with normalization of serum levels of routine biochemical parameters of liver function. These four cases and the one prior case report demonstrate that therapeutic ERCP is not absolutely contraindicated after myocardial infarction and suggest that therapeutic ERCP is preferable to surgery for symptomatic choledocholithiasis after myocardial infarction because of the increased mortality of surgery after myocardial infarction.
Department of Medicine, Maimonides Medical Center, Brooklyn, New York, USA.