Diseases potentially acquired by travel to East Africa
- David Murdoch, MD, MSc, DTM&H, FRACP, FRCPA, FFSc(RCPA)
David Murdoch, MD, MSc, DTM&H, FRACP, FRCPA, FFSc(RCPA)
- Clinical Microbiologist and Infectious Diseases Physician
- University of Otago, Christchurch
East Africa is comprised of Burundi, Comoros, Djibouti, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Kenya, Madagascar, Malawi, Mauritius, Mozambique, Réunion, Rwanda, Seychelles, Somalia, Tanzania, and Uganda. This region encompasses tropical rain forests in the west and center, desert areas in the north, and wooded steppes in the east.
Malaria — Malaria is a major risk for most travelers to East Africa. Endemic areas exist in all countries in this region except for the islands of Réunion and Seychelles and at altitudes over 2600 meters. Except for Mauritius, Plasmodium falciparum is the predominant cause of malaria, and chloroquine resistance is widespread. Within endemic areas, transmission occurs year round :
●Burundi – Risk throughout the year in the whole country
●Comoros – Risk throughout the year in the whole country
●Djibouti – Risk throughout the year in the whole country
- World Health Organization. International travel and health. WHO, Geneva 2012.
- Informal Working Group on Geographic Risk of Yellow Fever. Background for the Consultation on Yellow Fever and International Travel, 2010 (update February 2011). World Health Organization, Stockholm, Sweden, 4-5 March 2010.
- Ponce-de-León S, Lisker-Melman M, Kato-Maeda M, et al. Trypanosoma brucei rhodesiense infection imported to Mexico from a tourist resort in Kenya. Clin Infect Dis 1996; 23:847.
- Pryce D, Behrens R, Davidson R, et al. Onchocerciasis in members of an expedition to Cameroon: role of advice before travel and long term follow up. BMJ 1992; 304:1285.
- Encarnacion CF, Giordano MF, Murray HW. Onchocerciasis in New York City. The Moa-Manhattan connection. Arch Intern Med 1994; 154:1749.
- Parola P. Rickettsioses in sub-Saharan Africa. Ann N Y Acad Sci 2006; 1078:42.
- Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Chikungunya fever diagnosed among international travelers--United States, 2005-2006. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep 2006; 55:1040.
- Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Chikungunya virus - Geographic Distribution. http://www.cdc.gov/chikungunya/geo/index.html (Accessed on April 14, 2016).
- Geser A, Henderson BE, Christensen S. A multipurpose serological survey in Kenya. 2. Results of arbovirus serological tests. Bull World Health Organ 1970; 43:539.
- Kirya BG. A yellow fever epizootic in Zika forest, Uganda, during 1972: Part 1: Virus isolation and sentinel monkeys. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg 1977; 71:254.
- Kirya BG, Okia NO. A yellow fever epizootic in Zika Forest, Uganda, during 1972: Part 2: Monkey serology. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg 1977; 71:300.
- Rodhain F, Gonzalez JP, Mercier E, et al. Arbovirus infections and viral haemorrhagic fevers in Uganda: a serological survey in Karamoja district, 1984. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg 1989; 83:851.
- Steffen R. Epidemiology of traveler's diarrhea. Clin Infect Dis 2005; 41 Suppl 8:S536.
- Jelinek T, Nothdurft HD, Löscher T. Schistosomiasis in Travelers and Expatriates. J Travel Med 1996; 3:160.
- Lachish T, Tandlich M, Grossman T, Schwartz E. High rate of schistosomiasis in travelers after a brief exposure to the high-altitude Nyinambuga crater lake, Uganda. Clin Infect Dis 2013; 57:1461.
- Potasman I I, Pick N, Abel A, Dan M. Schistosomiasis Acquired in Lake Malawi. J Travel Med 1996; 3:32.
- Eng TR, O'Brien TR, Bernard KW, et al. HIV-1 and HIV-2 Infections Among U.S. Peace Corps Volunteers Returning from West Africa. J Travel Med 1995; 2:174.
- Cleaveland S. Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene meeting at Manson House, London, 20 March 1997. Epidemiology and control of rabies. The growing problem of rabies in Africa. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg 1998; 92:131.
- Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Rift Valley fever outbreak--Kenya, November 2006-January 2007. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep 2007; 56:73.
- de St Maurice A, Nyakarahuka L, Purpura L, et al. Notes from the Field: Rift Valley Fever Response - Kabale District, Uganda, March 2016. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep 2016; 65:1200.
- Faye O, Diallo M, Diop D, et al. Rift Valley fever outbreak with East-Central African virus lineage in Mauritania, 2003. Emerg Infect Dis 2007; 13:1016.
- Boushab BM, Fall-Malick FZ, Ould Baba SE, et al. Severe Human Illness Caused by Rift Valley Fever Virus in Mauritania, 2015. Open Forum Infect Dis 2016; 3:ofw200.
- Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Rift Valley Fever--East Africa, 1997-1998. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep 1998; 47:261.
- ARTHROPOD-BORNE DISEASES
- Yellow fever
- African trypanosomiasis
- Chikungunya fever
- Zika virus
- FOODBORNE AND WATERBORNE DISEASES
- Travelers' diarrhea
- Hepatitis A and E
- OTHER INFECTIONS
- Meningococcal disease
- HIV infection
- Other sexually transmitted diseases
- Hepatitis B and C
- Viral hemorrhagic fever
- - Ebola virus
- - Rift Valley fever
- - Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever
- OTHER HAZARDS
- Snake bites
- High-altitude disease