Official reprint from UpToDate®
www.uptodate.com ©2018 UpToDate, Inc. and/or its affiliates. All Rights Reserved.

Diabetic retinopathy: Prevention and treatment


Claire E Fraser, MD, PhD

Assistant Professor, Vitreoretinal Surgery

University of Kentucky

Donald J D'Amico, MD

Chairman of Ophthalmology

Weill Cornell Medical College

Section Editors

David M Nathan, MD

Editor-in-Chief — Endocrinology

Section Editor — Diabetes Mellitus

Professor of Medicine

Harvard Medical School

Jonathan Trobe, MD

Section Editor — Ophthalmology

Professor of Ophthalmology and Visual Sciences

Professor of Neurology

University of Michigan Kellogg Eye Center

Deputy Editor

Jean E Mulder, MD

Senior Deputy Editor — UpToDate

Deputy Editor — Endocrinology

Instructor in Medicine

Harvard Medical School

Peer Reviewer

Reviewers are not identified on topic reviews to preserve anonymity