Medline ® Abstracts for References 9,10
of 'Cutaneous leishmaniasis: Epidemiology and control'
Epidemiology of imported cutaneous leishmaniasis at the Hospital for Tropical Diseases, London, United Kingdom: use of polymerase chain reaction to identify the species.
Wall EC, Watson J, Armstrong M, Chiodini PL, Lockwood DN
Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2012;86(1):115.
This study reviewed all patients diagnosed with imported cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) at the Hospital for Tropical Diseases in London, United Kingdom, over an 11-year period. Diagnostic and epidemiologic information was collected prospectively for all patients with imported CL to this hospital during 1998-2009. A total of 223 patients were given a diagnosis of CL. Ninety patients were diagnosed with Old World CL, which was caused most commonly by Leishmania donovani complex (n = 20). A total of 71% were tourists to the Mediterranean region, 36% were migrants or visiting friends and relatives, and 17% were soldiers. One hundred thirty-three patients were given a diagnosis of New World CL. The Leishmania subgenus Viannia caused 97 of these cases; 44% of these were in backpackers and 29% were in soldiers. Polymerase chain reaction was more sensitive and faster for detecting Leishmania DNA (86% for Old World CL and 96% for New World CL) than culture. This is the largest study of imported leishmaniasis, and demonstrates that tourists to the Mediterranean and backpackers in Central and South America are at risk for this disease.
Department of Clinical Parasitology, Hospital for Tropical Diseases, London, United Kingdom. email@example.com
New world mucosal and cutaneous leishmaniasis: an emerging health problem among British travellers.
Lawn SD, Whetham J, Chiodini PL, Kanagalingam J, Watson J, Behrens RH, Lockwood DN
BACKGROUND: Mucosal leishmaniasis (ML) is an important complication of new world cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) caused by species of the Leishmania Viannia subgenus. Previous reports of ML among travellers to Latin America are few.
AIMS: To determine the annual number of cases of CL due to L. Viannia species diagnosed at this institution and to correlate this with changing patterns of travel. Secondly, to document the clinical presentation, diagnosis, treatment and outcome of ML at this institution.
DESIGN: Retrospective observational study.
METHODS: Data were collected from a clinical database, laboratory records, patient case notes and an international passenger survey.
RESULTS: Between 1995 and 2003, the annual number of cases of CL (total 79) steadily increased from 4 per year to 18 per year; the estimated number of travellers from the UK to Latin America increased 3.5-fold. Six cases of ML were diagnosed among British travellers in 1995 (1), 1997 (1) and 2002 (4). These infections were acquired in Bolivia (3), Colombia (2) and Belize (1). Nasopharyngeal symptoms developed 0-15 months after returning to the UK. Four patients had concurrent CL at diagnosis. Diagnosis of ML was delayed up to 6 months from the onset of symptoms. Mucosal biopsies from all 6 patients were PCR-positive for L. (Viannia) DNA; microscopy and culture were less sensitive. ML relapsed in one patient following treatment.
DISCUSSION: Increasing travel to Latin America from the UK was associated with an increasing number of diagnoses of L. Viannia CL. ML is likely to emerge as a more frequently imported infection among such travellers. Familiarity with these diseases is important for prompt diagnosis and optimal management.
Department of Infectious and Tropical Diseases, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, Keppel Street, London WC1E 7HT. firstname.lastname@example.org