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Medline ® Abstract for Reference 44

of 'Cutaneous leishmaniasis: Epidemiology and control'

A randomized controlled trial of insecticide-treated bednets and chaddars or top sheets, and residual spraying of interior rooms for the prevention of cutaneous leishmaniasis in Kabul, Afghanistan.
Reyburn H, Ashford R, Mohsen M, Hewitt S, Rowland M
Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg. 2000;94(4):361.
Anthroponotic cutaneous leishmaniasis (ACL) is a significant public health problem in many towns and cities of south central Asia and the Middle East, resulting in disfigurement and disability which warrants preventive action. A randomized controlled trial was conducted in 1997/98 amongst a non-immune study population of 3666 people in Kabul, Afghanistan, to compare the efficacy of insecticide-treated nets (ITNs), insecticide-treated Islamic cloth wraps (chaddars) used to sleep in, and residual pyrethroid spraying of individual houses for the prevention of ACL. Dosages of insecticide were: ITNs with permethrin, 0.5 g/m2; chaddars with permethrin, 1 g/m2; rooms with lambdacyhalothrin, 30 mg/m2. Cases of ACL were diagnosed on clinical criteria. At the end of the trial period (15 months) the incidence of ACL amongst controls was 7.2%, amongst ITN users 2.4% (OR 0.31, 95% CI 0.2-0.5), amongst impregnated chaddar users 2.5% (OR 0.33, 95% CI 0.2-0.6) and amongst residents of sprayed houses 4.4% (OR 0.60, 95% CI 0.3-0.95). ITNs and impregnated chaddars were equally effective, providing about 65% protective efficacy, with approximately 40% protective efficacy attributable to individual house spraying. No significant differences for age or sex were found between new cases in the intervention and control groups. No serious side-effects were reported and interventions were generally popular; ITNs were the most popular, followed by residual spraying and then impregnated chaddars.
HealthNet International, Peshawar, Pakistan.