Medline ® Abstract for Reference 61
of 'Convulsive status epilepticus in adults: Treatment and prognosis'
Lacosamide as a new treatment option in status epilepticus.
Höfler J, Trinka E
Epilepsia. 2013 Mar;54(3):393-404. Epub 2013 Jan 7.
Status epilepticus is among the most common neurologic emergencies, with a mortality rate of up to 20%. The most important therapeutic goal is fast, effective, and well-tolerated cessation of status epilepticus. Intravenous phenytoin/fosphenytoin, phenobarbital, or valproate is the current standard treatment after failure of benzodiazepines. Lacosamide as a new antiepileptic drug has been available as an intravenous solution since 2009. To date, PubMed lists 19 studies (10 single case reports and 9 case series), reporting a total of 136 episodes of refractory status epilepticus (50% nonconvulsive status epilepticus, 31% focal status epilepticus, and 19% convulsive status epilepticus) treated with lacosamide. The most often used bolus dose was 200-400 mg over 3-5 min. The overall success rate was 56% (76/136). Adverse events (AEs) were reported in 25% (34/136) of patients: mild sedation in 25 cases, 1 patient with possible angioedema, 2 with allergic skin reaction, 4 with hypotension, and 1 with pruritus. One patient developed a third-degree atrioventricular (AV) block and paroxysmal asystole. Overall, the rate of AEs was low. Current evidence on the use of intravenous lacosamide in acute seizures and status epilepticus is restricted to retrospective case reports and case series (class IV). Further prospective studies to inform clinicians are necessary.
Department of Neurology, Christian Doppler Klinik, Paracelsus Medical University of Salzburg, Salzburg, Austria.