Congenital toxoplasmosis: Clinical features and diagnosis
- Nicholas G Guerina, MD, PhD
Nicholas G Guerina, MD, PhD
- Assistant Clinical Professor
- Alpert Medical School of Brown University
- Lucila Marquez, MD, MPH
Lucila Marquez, MD, MPH
- Assistant Professor of Pediatrics
- Pediatric Infectious Diseases Section, Baylor College of Medicine
- Section Editors
- Sheldon L Kaplan, MD
Sheldon L Kaplan, MD
- Editor-in-Chief — Pediatrics
- Section Editor — Pediatric Infectious Diseases
- Professor and Vice Chairman for Clinical Affairs
- Baylor College of Medicine
- Leonard E Weisman, MD
Leonard E Weisman, MD
- Section Editor — Neonatology
- Professor of Pediatrics
- Baylor College of Medicine
Toxoplasma gondii is a ubiquitous protozoan parasite that infects animals and humans. Toxoplasma infection typically is asymptomatic in immunocompetent hosts. However, serious disease can occur, most frequently in the setting of immunosuppression or congenital infection. The fetus, newborn, and young infant with congenital Toxoplasma infection are at risk of infection-associated complications, particularly retinal disease that can occur into adulthood.
The clinical features and diagnosis of congenital toxoplasmosis will be reviewed here. The treatment, outcome, and prevention of congenital toxoplasmosis are discussed separately. (See "Congenital toxoplasmosis: Treatment, outcome, and prevention".)
Toxoplasmosis in other patient populations is discussed in separate topic reviews:
●Pregnancy (see "Toxoplasmosis and pregnancy")
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- CLINICAL FEATURES
- Subclinical infection
- Clinically apparent disease
- Late manifestations
- - Chorioretinitis
- - Other late manifestations
- EVALUATION AND DIAGNOSIS
- Clinical suspicion
- Clinical evaluation
- - Eye examination
- - Neurologic evaluation
- Lumbar puncture
- - Hearing evaluation
- Laboratory evaluation
- - Serology
- Initial testing
- Repeat testing
- - PCR
- - Other tests
- DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS
- SUMMARY AND RECOMMENDATIONS