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Medline ® Abstracts for References 1-5

of 'Clinical manifestations and diagnosis of heart failure with preserved ejection fraction'

1
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How to diagnose diastolic heart failure: a consensus statement on the diagnosis of heart failure with normal left ventricular ejection fraction by the Heart Failure and Echocardiography Associations of the European Society of Cardiology.
AU
Paulus WJ, Tschöpe C, Sanderson JE, Rusconi C, Flachskampf FA, Rademakers FE, Marino P, Smiseth OA, De Keulenaer G, Leite-Moreira AF, Borbély A, Edes I, Handoko ML, Heymans S, Pezzali N, Pieske B, Dickstein K, Fraser AG, Brutsaert DL
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Eur Heart J. 2007;28(20):2539. Epub 2007 Apr 11.
 
Diastolic heart failure (DHF) currently accounts for more than 50% of all heart failure patients. DHF is also referred to as heart failure with normal left ventricular (LV) ejection fraction (HFNEF) to indicate that HFNEF could be a precursor of heart failure with reduced LVEF. Because of improved cardiac imaging and because of widespread clinical use of plasma levels of natriuretic peptides, diagnostic criteria for HFNEF needed to be updated. The diagnosis of HFNEF requires the following conditions to be satisfied: (i) signs or symptoms of heart failure; (ii) normal or mildly abnormal systolic LV function; (iii) evidence of diastolic LV dysfunction. Normal or mildly abnormal systolic LV function implies both an LVEF>50% and an LV end-diastolic volume index (LVEDVI)<97 mL/m(2). Diagnostic evidence of diastolic LV dysfunction can be obtained invasively (LV end-diastolic pressure>16 mmHg or mean pulmonary capillary wedge pressure>12 mmHg) or non-invasively by tissue Doppler (TD) (E/E'>15). If TD yields an E/E' ratio suggestive of diastolic LV dysfunction (15>E/E'>8), additional non-invasive investigations are required for diagnostic evidence of diastolic LV dysfunction. These can consist of blood flow Doppler of mitral valve or pulmonary veins, echo measures of LV mass index or left atrial volume index, electrocardiographic evidence of atrial fibrillation, or plasma levels of natriuretic peptides. If plasma levels of natriuretic peptides are elevated, diagnostic evidence of diastolic LV dysfunction also requires additional non-invasive investigations such as TD, blood flow Doppler of mitral valve or pulmonary veins, echo measures of LV mass index or left atrial volume index, or electrocardiographic evidence of atrial fibrillation. A similar strategy with focus on a high negative predictive value of successive investigations is proposed for the exclusion of HFNEF in patients with breathlessness and no signs of congestion. The updated strategies for the diagnosis and exclusion of HFNEF are useful not only for individual patient management but also for patient recruitment in future clinical trials exploring therapies for HFNEF.
AD
Laboratory of Physiology, VU University Medical Center, Van der Boechorststraat, 7, 1081 BT, Amsterdam, The Netherlands. wj.paulus@vumc.nl
PMID
2
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Heart failure with preserved ejection fraction: mechanisms, clinical features, and therapies.
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Sharma K, Kass DA
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Circ Res. 2014 Jun;115(1):79-96.
 
The clinical syndrome comprising heart failure (HF) symptoms but with a left ventricular ejection fraction (EF) that is not diminished, eg, HF with preserved EF, is increasingly the predominant form of HF in the developed world, and soon to reach epidemic proportions. It remains among the most challenging of clinical syndromes for the practicing clinician and scientist alike, with a multitude of proposed mechanisms involving the heart and other organs and complex interplay with common comorbidities. Importantly, its morbidity and mortality are on par with HF with reduced EF, and as the list of failed treatments continues to grow, HF with preserved EF clearly represents a major unmet medical need. The field is greatly in need of a more unified approach to its definition and view of the syndrome that engages integrative and reserve pathophysiology beyond that related to the heart alone. We need to reflect on prior treatment failures and the message this is providing, and redirect our approaches likely with a paradigm shift in how the disease is viewed. Success will require interactions between clinicians, translational researchers, and basic physiologists. Here, we review recent translational and clinical research into HF with preserved EF and give perspectives on its evolving demographics and epidemiology, the role of multiorgan deficiencies, potential mechanisms that involve the heart and other organs, clinical trials, and future directions.
AD
From the Division of Cardiology, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD.
PMID
3
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Heart failure with preserved ejection fraction: pathophysiology, diagnosis, and treatment.
AU
Borlaug BA, Paulus WJ
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Eur Heart J. 2011 Mar;32(6):670-9. Epub 2010 Dec 7.
 
Half of patients with heart failure (HF) have a preserved left ventricular ejection fraction (HFpEF). Morbidity and mortality in HFpEF are similar to values observed in patients with HF and reduced EF, yet no effective treatment has been identified. While early research focused on the importance of diastolic dysfunction in the pathophysiology of HFpEF, recent studies have revealed that multiple non-diastolic abnormalities in cardiovascular function also contribute. Diagnosis of HFpEF is frequently challenging and relies upon careful clinical evaluation, echo-Doppler cardiography, and invasive haemodynamic assessment. In this review, the principal mechanisms, diagnostic approaches, and clinical trials are reviewed, along with a discussion of novel treatment strategies that are currently under investigation or hold promise for the future.
AD
The Division of Cardiovascular Diseases, Department of Medicine, Mayo Clinic Rochester, MN 55906, USA. borlaug.barry@mayo.edu
PMID
4
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Heart failure with preserved ejection fraction: current understandings and challenges.
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Andersen MJ, Borlaug BA
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Curr Cardiol Rep. 2014 Jul;16(7):501.
 
Heart failure (HF) is the leading cause of hospitalization among older adults and the prevalence is growing with the aging populations in western countries. Approximately one-half of patients with HF have preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF). In contrast to HF with reduced EF (HFrEF), there is no proven effective treatment for HFpEF. The pathophysiology of HFpEF is complex, and the dominant mechanisms leading to symptoms of HF often vary between afflicted patients, confounding efforts to apply "one-size fits all" types of therapeutic approaches. Current treatment strategies focus on control of volume status and comorbidities, but future research aimed at individualized therapies holds promise to improve outcomes in this increasingly prevalent form of cardiac failure.
AD
The Division of Cardiovascular Diseases, Department of Medicine, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN, 55905, USA.
PMID
5
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Heart Failure With Preserved Ejection Fraction.
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Reddy YN, Borlaug BA
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Curr Probl Cardiol. 2016;41(4):145. Epub 2015 Dec 9.
 
Heart failure (HF) is one of the largest drivers of morbidity and health care expenditure in the world and continues to increase in prevalence at an alarming rate. Most of this increasing burden is related to the rapidly expanding population of HF with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF), largely driven by the increasing rates of obesity, hypertension, and metabolic syndrome in western countries. In the last 3 decades, there have been tremendous advances in treating patients with HF with reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF), with essentially no change in outcomes for HFpEF. The lack of efficacy for established HFrEF therapies in HFpEF underscores the fundamental differences between both these phenotypically distinct forms of HF. In this review, we will summarize the current understanding of the pathophysiology of HFpEF, discuss diagnostic and therapeutic strategies, and provide future avenues to direct clinical investigation.
AD
PMID