Medline ® Abstract for Reference 30
of 'Cholangioscopy and pancreatoscopy'
Lithotripsy of gallstones by means of a quality-switched giant-pulse neodymium:yttrium-aluminum-garnet laser. Basic in vitro studies using a highly flexible fiber system.
Hochberger J, Gruber E, Wirtz P, Dürr U, Kolb A, Zanger U, Hahn EG, Ell C
The quality-switched neodymium:yttrium-aluminum-garnet laser represents a new instrument for athermal fragmentation of gallstones by transformation of optical energy into mechanical energy in the form of shock waves via local plasma formation. A highly flexible 300-micron fiber transmission system was used in basic investigations to determine the influence of varying pulse repetition rates (5-30 Hz) and pulse energies (15 and 20 mJ) on shock wave intensity and stone fragmentation in vitro for 105 biliary calculi of known size and chemical composition. After performance of 1200 shock wave pressure measurements using polyvinylidenefluoride hydrophones, stone fragmentation was analyzed by determination of fragment removal rates (volume of fragments removed per fragmentation time), ablation rates (mean volume removed per laser pulse), and median fragment sizes for each laser setting. With the quality-switched neodymium:yttrium-aluminum-garnet laser system, all concrements could be reliably disintegrated into small fragments (median diameter, 0.7-1.7 mm). Compared with pure cholesterol stones, a significantly higher fragment removal rate was achieved in cholesterol stones containing 30% calcium phosphate (P = 0.039), in cholesterol stones containing 20% pigment (P = 0.015), and in pure pigment stones(P = 0.007). Fragment removal rates, local shock wave pressures, and median grain sizes were significantly higher at a pulse energy of 20 mJ than with 15 mJ. Shock wave pressures showed a distinct dependence on pulse repetition rates at 20 mJ, yet not at 15 mJ. Because there is no evident hazard of thermal damage to tissue using the quality-switched neodymium:yttrium-aluminum-garnet laser, it appears to be a promising device for nonsurgical biliary stone therapy.
First Department of Medicine, Friedrich-Alexander-University, Erlangen-Nuremberg, Germany.