Causes of acute respiratory distress in children
- Debra L Weiner, MD, PhD
Debra L Weiner, MD, PhD
- Assistant Professor of Pediatrics
- Harvard Medical School
- Section Editor
- Gary R Fleisher, MD
Gary R Fleisher, MD
- Editor-in-Chief — Adult and Pediatric Emergency Medicine
- Section Editor — Pediatric Signs and Symptoms
- Egan Family Foundation Professor
- Harvard Medical School
- Deputy Editor
- James F Wiley, II, MD, MPH
James F Wiley, II, MD, MPH
- Senior Deputy Editor — UpToDate
- Deputy Editor — Adult and Pediatric Emergency Medicine
- Deputy Editor — Primary Care Sports Medicine (Adolescents and Adults)
- Clinical Professor of Pediatrics and Emergency Medicine/Traumatology
- University of Connecticut School of Medicine
This topic will review causes of acute respiratory distress in children. A detailed discussion of the approach to children with acute respiratory distress and approach to children with severe upper airway obstruction is found elsewhere. (See "Acute respiratory distress in children: Emergency evaluation and initial stabilization" and "Emergency evaluation of acute upper airway obstruction in children".)
Other related topics including the initial assessment and stabilization of children with respiratory and circulatory compromise and airway management techniques, including rapid sequence intubation (RSI), and conditions causing respiratory distress in newborns are discussed separately:
- Recognition of respiratory distress and failure. In: Pediatric Advanced Life Support Provider Manual, Chameides L, Samson RA, Schexnayder SM, Hazinski MF (Eds), American Heart Association, Dallas 2011. p.37.
- Cheifetz IM. Year in Review 2015: Pediatric ARDS. Respir Care 2016; 61:980.
- Parasuraman S, Goldhaber SZ. Venous thromboembolism in children. Circulation 2006; 113:e12.
- Milner D, Losek JD, Schiff J, Sicoli R. Pediatric pericardial tamponade presenting as altered mental status. Pediatr Emerg Care 2003; 19:35.
- Cousineau A, Savitsky E. Cardiac tamponade presenting as an apparent life-threatening event. Pediatr Emerg Care 2005; 21:104.
- Henretig FM, Cieslak TJ, Kortepeter MG, Fleisher GR. Medical management of the suspected victim of bioterrorism: an algorithmic approach to the undifferentiated patient. Emerg Med Clin North Am 2002; 20:351.
- Patt HA, Feigin RD. Diagnosis and management of suspected cases of bioterrorism: a pediatric perspective. Pediatrics 2002; 109:685.
- Immediately life-threatening conditions
- - Severe upper airway obstruction
- - Tension pneumothorax
- - Pulmonary embolism
- - Cardiac tamponade
- - Other traumatic conditions
- - Biological or chemical weapons
- Other non-traumatic conditions
- - Respiratory tract conditions
- Foreign body
- Airway anomalies
- Pulmonary edema
- Chest wall and thoracic cavity abnormalities
- - Cardiovascular conditions
- Congenital heart disease
- Acute decompensated heart failure
- Cardiac arrhythmia
- Myocardial infarction
- - Neurologic and muscle diseases
- - Gastrointestinal conditions
- - Metabolic and endocrine diseases
- - Hematologic conditions
- - Acute on chronic diseases