Official reprint from UpToDate®
www.uptodate.com ©2017 UpToDate, Inc. and/or its affiliates. All Rights Reserved.

Medline ® Abstract for Reference 42

of 'Bradykinetic movement disorders in children'

Neurodegeneration with Brain Iron Accumulation.
Schneider SA
Curr Neurol Neurosci Rep. 2016;16(1):9.
Syndromes with neurodegeneration with brain iron accumulation (NBIA) are a group of neurodegenerative disorders characterized by abnormalities in brain iron metabolism with excess iron accumulation in the globus pallidus and to a lesser degree in the substantia nigra and sometimes adjacent areas. They clinically present as neurodegenerative diseases with progressive hypo- and/or hyperkinetic movement disorders and a variable degree of pyramidal, cerebellar, peripheral nerve, autonomic, cognitive and psychiatric involvement, and visual dysfunction. Several causative genes underlying NBIA have been identified which explain about 65% of cases. Pathophysiologically, many of the NBIA syndromes map into related biochemical pathways and gene networks including mitochondrial pathways, lipid metabolism, and autophagy. Treatment for NBIA disorders remains symptomatic but a placebo-controlled double-blind study is underway. Rapid developments prompted the review of this interesting field.
Department of Neurology, Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität, University of Munich, Marchioninistraße 15, 81377, München, Germany. s.schneider@neurologie.uni-kiel.de.