Medline ® Abstracts for References 48-50
of 'Benefits and risks of smoking cessation'
Increase in common cold symptoms and mouth ulcers following smoking cessation.
Ussher M, West R, Steptoe A, McEwen A
Tob Control. 2003;12(1):86.
OBJECTIVE: To examine changes in reports of common cold symptoms and mouth ulcers following smoking cessation. It was hypothesised that reports of these symptoms would increase on stopping smoking.
DESIGN: Smokers were assessed one week before stopping smoking (baseline), then after one, two, and six weeks of smoking abstinence.
PARTICIPANTS: 174 smokers attending a seven week smoking cessation programme combining behavioural support with nicotine patches.
MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Self reports of cold symptoms, mouth ulcers, and smoking abstinence (validated using expired carbon monoxide) were recorded on each measurement occasion.
RESULTS: Following one, two, and six weeks of smoking abstinence 73.0% (127/174), 57.5% (100/174), and 44.8% (78/174) of the participants, respectively, maintained continuous abstinence and provided reports of cold symptoms and mouth ulcers. For those abstinent from smoking for six weeks, relative to baseline, a significant increase in reports of the number of cold symptoms was observed following one and two weeks of smoking abstinence (p = 0.009 and p = 0.038, respectively) and an increase in reports of mouth ulcers after one and two weeks of abstinence (p = 0.004 and p = 0.008, respectively). Following one week of abstinence significant increases in reports of sore throat, coughing, deafness, and sneezing were observed (p = 0.049, p<0.001, p<0.039, and p<0.003, respectively).
CONCLUSIONS: This is the first study to systematically document significant increases in cold symptoms and mouth ulcers following smoking cessation. Smokers should be informed that they have an increased chance of experiencing these symptoms on stopping smoking. Being psychologically prepared for these effects may reduce their impact on the attempt to stop smoking.
Department of Psychology, St George's Hospital Medical School, University of London, UK. email@example.com
The recurrent aphthous stomatitis frequency in the smoking cessation people.
Marakoğlu K, Sezer RE, Toker HC, Marakoğlu I
Clin Oral Investig. 2007;11(2):149.
This study was aimed to evaluate the frequency of recurrent aphthous stomatitis (RAS) within the 6-week period after quitting smoking. The study group consisted of 90 subjects. Oral, medical findings and tobacco habits were recorded for all subjects. Nicotine replacement therapy (NRT) and behavioral treatment were applied to some of the subjects by a family physician. All subjects were evaluated for their RAS and periodontal measurements on baseline, 1, 3, 6 weeks by a periodontist. While the subjects were in this smoking cessation programme, 64 of the 90 smokers successfully quit smoking within the 6 weeks and 26 smokers dropped out during the third week of the study. Point prevalence of RAS among the subjects on the first day of the quitting period and at the end of the first, third and sixth week after smoking cessation was 3.3% (3/90), 18.9% (17/90), 21.1% (19/90) and 17.1 (11/64), respectively. In the following weeks, aphthous ulcer point prevalence was significantly higher than the quitting level (p<0.05). As the time after quitting increased, the incidence of aphthous ulcer decreased. Of 64 patients, 35 (54.6%) completed the 6 weeks using NRT and 29 (45.4%) of them did not use any medication. The aphthous ulcer frequency observed in the patients taking NRT [11.4% (4/35)]was lower when compared with the subjects taking no NRT [24.1% (7/29)](p>0.05). The results of this study confirm that RAS is a complication of quitting smoking. Further studies are needed to identify the effects of NRT on RAS.
Meram Medical Faculty, Department of Family Medicine, Selçuk University, Aile Hekimliği AD, Konya, Turkey. firstname.lastname@example.org
Effect of smoking cessation on cough reflex sensitivity.
Dicpinigaitis PV, Sitkauskiene B, Stravinskaite K, Appel DW, Negassa A, Sakalauskas R
Eur Respir J. 2006;28(4):786.
Recent studies have shown that cigarette smokers have diminished cough reflex sensitivity compared with nonsmokers. The current authors proposed a mechanism of chronic cigarette smoke-induced desensitisation of airway cough receptors. To investigate this hypothesis, cough sensitivity to inhaled capsaicin (C5) in chronic smokers was measured both while they were actively smoking and 2, 6, 12 and 24 weeks after smoking cessation. In total, 29 subjects underwent baseline capsaicin challenge while smoking and 2 weeks after smoking cessation. Mean+/-sem log C5 fell from 1.86+/-0.12 to 1.60+/-0.12, demonstrating significant enhancement of cough reflex sensitivity. Of the total, 20, 18 and 14 subjects successfully abstained from smoking for 6, 12 and 24 weeks, respectively. Mean log C5 values after 12 and 24 weeks of smoking cessation were significantly diminished from baseline. In a control group of smokers, mean log C5 did not decrease from baseline after 6, 12 and 24 weeks. Overall, the log C5 profile of the smoking cessation group showed a clear, linearly decreasing trend over time compared with the control group. Even after many years of smoking, cough sensitivity is enhanced as early as 2 weeks after smoking cessation. Given the importance of an intact cough reflex, these changes may provide clinical benefit.
Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Montefiore Medical Center, 1825 Eastchester Road, Bronx, NY 10461, USA. email@example.com