- Alessandro Villa, DDS, PhD, MPH
Alessandro Villa, DDS, PhD, MPH
- Instructor, Department of Oral Medicine, Infection and Immunity
- Harvard School of Dental Medicine
- Jean M Bruch, DMD, MD
Jean M Bruch, DMD, MD
- Assistant Professor in Laryngology and Otology
- Harvard Medical School
Halitosis (from the Latin word for breath, “halitus”; also known as oral malodor, “fetor ex ore,” or “fetor oris”) is a common condition. Patients may not be aware of their own bad breath and learn of it from another person.
This topic will cover the epidemiology, pathogenesis, causes, evaluation, and management of halitosis. Related topics such as gingivitis, periodontitis, and odontogenic infections are discussed elsewhere. (See "Gingivitis and periodontitis in adults: Classification and dental treatment" and "Gingivitis and periodontitis in children and adolescents" and "Epidemiology, pathogenesis, and clinical manifestations of odontogenic infections" and "Complications, diagnosis, and treatment of odontogenic infections".)
●Halitosis – Halitosis is defined as “malodor with intensity beyond a socially acceptable level perceived” [1,2]. It is a significant concern for many individuals and may negatively affect their quality of life and personal relationships .
●Physiologic halitosis – Bad breath that does not have a specific cause. It is usually worse in the morning and often transient.
●Pathologic halitosis – Bad breath that results from a specific identifiable cause.To continue reading this article, you must log in with your personal, hospital, or group practice subscription. For more information on subscription options, click below on the option that best describes you:
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- CAUSES OF HALITOSIS
- - Oral
- - Nasal
- - Respiratory
- - Gastroesophageal
- - Systemic
- Physical examination
- - Organoleptic tests
- Dentures/dental restorations
- - Instrumental tests
- Sulfide monitors
- Gas chromatography
- INDICATIONS FOR REFERRAL
- Identifiable cause
- No cause identified
- Subjective halitosis
- SUMMARY AND RECOMMENDATIONS