Official reprint from UpToDate®
www.uptodate.com ©2017 UpToDate, Inc. and/or its affiliates. All Rights Reserved.

Aortoenteric fistula: Recognition and management

Luis R Leon, MD, RVT, FACS
Section Editors
Joseph L Mills, Sr, MD
John F Eidt, MD
Deputy Editor
Kathryn A Collins, MD, PhD, FACS


Aortoenteric fistulae (AEFs), first described in the early 19th century by Sir Astley Cooper [1], are uncommon but life-threatening conditions. AEF is defined as an abnormal connection between the aorta and the gastrointestinal tract. It is most often the result of compression of an abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) against (primary cause), or erosion of an aortic prosthetic graft into (secondary cause) the surrounding gastrointestinal structures.

The clinical manifestations, diagnosis, and management of AEFs are reviewed here. The management of asymptomatic and general management of symptomatic abdominal aortic aneurysms are discussed separately. (See "Management of asymptomatic abdominal aortic aneurysm" and "Management of symptomatic (non-ruptured) and ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysm".)


Aortoenteric fistula (AEF) is an uncommon but life-threatening condition. AEF is defined as an abnormal connection between the aorta (or aortoiliac tree) and the gastrointestinal tract. It is most often the result of primary compression of the aorta (eg, abdominal aortic aneurysm) against, or erosion of an aortic prosthetic graft into the surrounding gastrointestinal structures. AEFs are most commonly a single communication between the aorta and a single organ, most often within the gastrointestinal tract. However, the aorta can fistulize to other organs concomitantly with the gastrointestinal tract, or to other organs independent of the gastrointestinal tract [2-4].

Two types of AEFs are recognized: primary aortoenteric fistula (PAEF) and secondary aortoenteric fistula (SAEF).

Primary aortoenteric fistula (PAEF) — Primary aortoenteric fistula (PAEF) arises de novo between the aorta and the bowel. One laboratory study of PAEF in dogs demonstrated a role for both mechanical factors and aortic inflammation/infection in their development [5]. However, some feel that aortic inflammation/infection plays the more important role [6]. Septic aortitis with transient bacteriemia, which may be due to a variety of pathogens [7-10], seeds bacteria onto the inner arterial surface and permits the formation of an aneurysm or false aneurysm that erodes into adjacent structures [11,12]. (See "Overview of infected (mycotic) arterial aneurysm", section on 'Etiology'.)

To continue reading this article, you must log in with your personal, hospital, or group practice subscription. For more information on subscription options, click below on the option that best describes you:

Subscribers log in here

Literature review current through: Nov 2017. | This topic last updated: Nov 01, 2016.
The content on the UpToDate website is not intended nor recommended as a substitute for medical advice, diagnosis, or treatment. Always seek the advice of your own physician or other qualified health care professional regarding any medical questions or conditions. The use of this website is governed by the UpToDate Terms of Use ©2017 UpToDate, Inc.
  1. Cooper A. Lectures on the Principles and Practice of Surgery, London 1829.
  2. Kang SJ, Kim DI, Huh SH, et al. Coexisting aortocolic and aortovesical fistulae in an abdominal aortic aneurysm: report of a case. Surg Today 2003; 33:441.
  3. Bengisun U, Alaçayir I, Karayalçin K, et al. Simultaneous manifestation of an aortocaval and aortoduodenal fistula. Vasa 1996; 25:81.
  4. Deem S, Stone P, Schlarb C. Ureteral perigraft fistula. Vasc Endovascular Surg 2007; 41:352.
  5. Ikonomopoulos DC, Spanos PK, Lazarides DP. Pathogenesis of aortoenteric fistula. An experimental study. Int Angiol 1986; 5:33.
  6. Busuttil RW, Rees W, Baker JD, Wilson SE. Pathogenesis of aortoduodenal fistula: experimental and clinical correlates. Surgery 1979; 85:1.
  7. McIntyre KE Jr, Malone JM, Richards E, Axline SG. Mycotic aortic pseudoaneurysm with aortoenteric fistula caused by Arizona hinshawii. Surgery 1982; 91:173.
  8. Goldbaum TS, Lindsay J Jr, Levy C, Silva CA. Tuberculous aortitis presenting with an aortoduodenal fistula: a case report. Angiology 1986; 37:519.
  9. Morrow C, Safi H, Beall AC Jr. Primary aortoduodenal fistula caused by Salmonella aortitis. J Vasc Surg 1987; 6:415.
  10. Oz MC, Brener BJ, Buda JA, et al. A ten-year experience with bacterial aortitis. J Vasc Surg 1989; 10:439.
  11. Calligaro KD, Bergen WS, Savarese RP, et al. Primary aortoduodenal fistula due to septic aortitis. J Cardiovasc Surg (Torino) 1992; 33:192.
  12. Wheeler WE, Hanks J, Raman VK. Primary aortoenteric fistulas. Am Surg 1992; 58:53.
  13. O'Mara C, Imbembo AL. Paraprosthetic-enteric fistula. Surgery 1977; 81:556.
  14. Lorimer JW, Goobie P, Rasuli P, et al. Primary aortogastric fistula: a complication of ruptured aortic aneurysm. J Cardiovasc Surg (Torino) 1996; 37:363.
  15. Chaudhary NA, Saymeh L, Vongthavaravat V, Harty RF. Primary aortoenteric fistula to jejunum: a case report. J Okla State Med Assoc 2003; 96:519.
  16. Brown PW, Sailors DM, Headrick JR, Burns RP. Primary aortojejunal fistula: a case report. Am Surg 1999; 65:139.
  17. Ihaya A, Chiba Y, Kimura T, et al. Primary aortosigmoid fistula treated by descending thoracic aortofemoral bypass. J Cardiovasc Surg (Torino) 2000; 41:325.
  18. Zaki M, Tawfick W, Alawy M, et al. Secondary aortoduodenal fistula following endovascular repair of inflammatory abdominal aortic aneurysm due to Streptococcus anginosus infection: A case report and literature review. Int J Surg Case Rep 2014; 5:710.
  19. Tshomba Y, Kahlberg A, Marone EM, et al. Aortoenteric fistula as a late complication of thrombolysis and bare metal stenting for perioperative occlusion of aortofemoral bypass. J Vasc Surg 2006; 44:408.
  20. Panagiotides H, Kollias V, Limberopoulos C. Case report on primary and secondary aortoenteric fistula in patient. J Cardiovasc Surg (Torino) 1994; 35:437.
  21. Bergqvist D. Arterioenteric fistula. Review of a vascular emergency. Acta Chir Scand 1987; 153:81.
  22. Elliott JP Jr, Smith RF, Szilagyi DE. Proceedings: Aortoenteric and paraprosthetic-enteric fistulas. Problems of diagnosis and management. Arch Surg 1974; 108:479.
  23. Barman AA, Kerr P. Primary and secondary aortoenteric fistula and thoracic aortic aneurysm. N Y State J Med 1992; 92:156.
  24. Grigsby WS, Eitzen EM, Boyle DJ 2nd. Aortoenteric fistula: a catastrophe waiting to happen. Ann Emerg Med 1986; 15:731.
  25. Deriu GP, Ballotta E. Prevention of enteric erosion by vascular prostheses. Tex Heart Inst J 1982; 9:325.
  26. Medical Staff Conference, aortoenteric fistula. West J Med 1981; 134:242.
  27. Abou-Zamzam AM Jr, Bianchi C, Mazraany W, et al. Aortoenteric fistula development following endovascular abdominal aortic aneurysm repair: a case report. Ann Vasc Surg 2003; 17:119.
  28. Fernández-Alonso L, Alegret J, Urtasun F, et al. Aortoenteric fistula after endovascular abdominal aortic aneurysm treatment with the original Gore Excluder endoprosthesis and Cook aortouniiliac converter for endotension. J Cardiovasc Surg (Torino) 2011; 52:391.
  29. Riera del Moral L, Fernández Alonso S, Stefanov Kiuri S, et al. Aortoenteric fistula arising as a complication of endovascular treatment of abdominal aortic aneurysm. Ann Vasc Surg 2009; 23:255.e13.
  30. Ratchford EV, Morrissey NJ. Aortoenteric fistula: a late complication of endovascular repair of an inflammatory abdominal aortic aneurysm. Vasc Endovascular Surg 2006; 40:487.
  31. Ueno M, Iguro Y, Nagata T, Sakata R. Aortoenteric fistula after endovascular stent grafting for an abdominal aortic aneurysm: report of a case. Surg Today 2006; 36:546.
  32. BROCK RC. Aortic homografting; a report of six successful cases. Guys Hosp Rep 1953; 102:204.
  33. Pipinos II, Carr JA, Haithcock BE, et al. Secondary aortoenteric fistula. Ann Vasc Surg 2000; 14:688.
  34. Kuestner LM, Reilly LM, Jicha DL, et al. Secondary aortoenteric fistula: contemporary outcome with use of extraanatomic bypass and infected graft excision. J Vasc Surg 1995; 21:184.
  35. Hallett JW Jr, Marshall DM, Petterson TM, et al. Graft-related complications after abdominal aortic aneurysm repair: reassurance from a 36-year population-based experience. J Vasc Surg 1997; 25:277.
  36. Voorhoeve R, Moll FL, Bast TJ. The primary aortoenteric fistula in The Netherlands--the unpublished cases. Eur J Vasc Endovasc Surg 1996; 11:429.
  37. Ghilardi G, Longhi F, Sgroi G, et al. [Primary aorto-enteric communication]. Minerva Cardioangiol 1994; 42:233.
  38. Kappadath SK, Clarke MJ, Stormer E, et al. Primary aortoenteric fistula due to a swallowed twig in a three-year-old child. Eur J Vasc Endovasc Surg 2010; 39:217.
  39. Shen HT, Liao WC, Chen CH, Chen WC. Aortoenteric fistula in a patient with right common iliac aortic aneurysm. QJM 2011; 104:621.
  40. Podbielski FJ, Rodriguez HE, Zhu RY, et al. Aortoesophageal fistula secondary to reflux esophagitis. Dig Surg 2007; 24:66.
  41. Odze RD, Bégin LR. Peptic-ulcer-induced aortoenteric fistula. Report of a case and review of the literature. J Clin Gastroenterol 1991; 13:682.
  42. Adinolfi MF, Hardin W, Kerstein MD. Aortic erosion by duodenal diverticulum: an unusual aortoenteric fistula. South Med J 1983; 76:1069.
  43. Sindelar WF, Mason GR. Aortocystoduodenal fistula: rare complication of pancreatic pseudocyst. Arch Surg 1979; 114:953.
  44. Armitage NC, Ballantyne KC. Primary aortoenteric fistula due to recurrent colorectal cancer. Report of a case. Dis Colon Rectum 1990; 33:148.
  45. Bertges DJ, Villella ER, Makaroun MS. Aortoenteric fistula due to endoleak coil embolization after endovascular AAA repair. J Endovasc Ther 2003; 10:130.
  46. Skourtis G, Papacharalambous G, Makris S, et al. Primary aortoenteric fistula due to septic aortitis. Ann Vasc Surg 2010; 24:825.e7.
  47. Spinelli F, Mirenda F, Mandolfino T, et al. Primary aortoduodenal fistula including the afferent loop of a Billroth II anastomosis. A case report. J Cardiovasc Surg (Torino) 2002; 43:711.
  48. Certik B, Treska V, Skalický T, et al. [Penetrating aortic ulcer with severe gastrointestinal bleeding]. Zentralbl Chir 2004; 129:183.
  49. Phillips MS, Gosain S, Bonatti H, et al. Enteral stents for malignancy: a report of 46 consecutive cases over 10 years, with critical review of complications. J Gastrointest Surg 2008; 12:2045.
  50. Sevastos N, Rafailidis P, Kolokotronis K, et al. Primary aortojejunal fistula due to foreign body: a rare cause of gastrointestinal bleeding. Eur J Gastroenterol Hepatol 2002; 14:797.
  51. Başer M, Arslantürk H, Kisli E, et al. Primary aortoduodenal fistula due to a swallowed sewing needle: a rare cause of gastrointestinal bleeding. Ulus Travma Acil Cerrahi Derg 2007; 13:154.
  52. Drognitz O, Pfeiffenberger J, Schareck W, et al. [Primary aortoduodenal fistula as a late complication of para-aortic radiation therapy. A case report]. Chirurg 2002; 73:633.
  53. Farber A, Grigoryants V, Palac DM, et al. Primary aortoduodenal fistula in a patient with a history of intravesical therapy for bladder cancer with bacillus Calmette-Guérin: review of primary aortoduodenal fistula without abdominal aortic aneurysm. J Vasc Surg 2001; 33:868.
  54. Gad A. Aortoduodenal fistula revisited. Scand J Gastroenterol Suppl 1989; 167:97.
  55. Reynolds JV, Galloway JM. Primary aortoduodenal fistula: a case report and review of the literature. Ir J Med Sci 1991; 160:381.
  56. Frizelle FA, Hung NA, Heslop JH, Parry BR. Obscure gastrointestinal bleeding: idiopathic aortoduodenal fistula. J R Coll Surg Edinb 1991; 36:331.
  57. Goenka MK, Mehta SK, Kochhar R, et al. Primary aortoduodenal fistula in a 23 year old man without an associated aortic aneurysm. Eur J Surg 1993; 159:371.
  58. Jaroch MT, Diehl JT, Zippert AM. Primary aortoduodenal fistula without abdominal aortic aneurysm. Cleve Clin Q 1985; 52:579.
  59. Steffes BC, O'Leary JP. Primary aortoduodenal fistula: a case report and review of the literature. Am Surg 1980; 46:121.
  60. Yeager RA, McConnell DB, Sasaki TM, Vetto RM. Aortic and peripheral prosthetic graft infection: differential management and causes of mortality. Am J Surg 1985; 150:36.
  61. Perez RO, Katayama FF, Bresciani C, et al. Aortoenteric fistula to the sigmoid colon-case report. Curr Surg 2005; 62:49.
  62. Vollmar JF, Kogel H. Aorto-enteric fistulas as postoperative complication. J Cardiovasc Surg (Torino) 1987; 28:479.
  63. Armstrong PA, Back MR, Wilson JS, et al. Improved outcomes in the recent management of secondary aortoenteric fistula. J Vasc Surg 2005; 42:660.
  64. Connolly JE, Kwaan JH, McCart PM, et al. Aortoenteric fistula. Ann Surg 1981; 194:402.
  65. Reilly LM, Ehrenfeld WK, Goldstone J, Stoney RJ. Gastrointestinal tract involvement by prosthetic graft infection. The significance of gastrointestinal hemorrhage. Ann Surg 1985; 202:342.
  66. Reiner MA, Brau SA, Schanzer H. Primary aortoduodenal fistula. Case presentation and review of literature. Am J Gastroenterol 1978; 70:292.
  67. Castilho Jr OT, Santos JS, Peres LC, et al. Fístula aortentérica primária. Cir Vasc Angiol 1995; 11:73.
  68. Busuttil SJ, Goldstone J. Diagnosis and management of aortoenteric fistulas. Semin Vasc Surg 2001; 14:302.
  69. Reilly LM, Altman H, Lusby RJ, et al. Late results following surgical management of vascular graft infection. J Vasc Surg 1984; 1:36.
  70. Dossa CD, Pipinos II, Shepard AD, Ernst CB. Primary aortoenteric fistula: Part I. Ann Vasc Surg 1994; 8:113.
  71. Kaushik SP, Cowlishaw JL. Primary aortoenteric fistula. Aust N Z J Med 1998; 28:471.
  72. Voorhoeve R, Moll FL, de Letter JA, et al. Primary aortoenteric fistula: report of eight new cases and review of the literature. Ann Vasc Surg 1996; 10:40.
  73. Sweeney MS, Gadacz TR. Primary aortoduodenal fistula: manifestation, diagnosis, and treatment. Surgery 1984; 96:492.
  74. Hughes FM, Kavanagh D, Barry M, et al. Aortoenteric fistula: a diagnostic dilemma. Abdom Imaging 2007; 32:398.
  75. Wood A, Bendjelid SM, Bendjelid K. Primary aortoenteric fistula: should enhanced computed tomography be considered in the diagnostic work-up? Anesth Analg 2005; 101:1157.
  76. Wilson WR, Bower TC, Creager MA, et al. Vascular Graft Infections, Mycotic Aneurysms, and Endovascular Infections: A Scientific Statement From the American Heart Association. Circulation 2016; 134:e412.
  77. Hamdani R, Summers R. Vascular-enteric fistula: diagnosis by colonoscopy. Gastrointest Endosc 1995; 42:80.
  78. Malaki M, Perkins JM, Mortensen NJ, Hands LJ. Graft-enteric erosion: an unusual colonoscopic diagnosis. Eur J Vasc Endovasc Surg 2001; 21:283.
  79. Mark AS, Moss AA, McCarthy S, McCowin M. CT of aortoenteric fistulas. Invest Radiol 1985; 20:272.
  80. Delgado J, Jotkowitz AB, Delgado B, et al. Primary aortoduodenal fistula: Pitfalls and success in the endoscopic diagnosis. Eur J Intern Med 2005; 16:363.
  81. Champion MC, Sullivan SN, Coles JC, et al. Aortoenteric fistula. Incidence, presentation recognition, and management. Ann Surg 1982; 195:314.
  82. Saers SJ, Scheltinga MR. Primary aortoenteric fistula. Br J Surg 2005; 92:143.
  83. Mavioglu I, Sucu N, Aytacoglu BN, et al. Primary aorto-colic fistula arising from a post-traumatic aortic pseudoaneurysm. Eur J Vasc Endovasc Surg 2005; 29:97.
  84. Jones AW, Kirk RS, Bloor K. The association between aneurysm of the abdominal aorta and peptic ulceration. Gut 1970; 11:679.
  85. Vu QD, Menias CO, Bhalla S, et al. Aortoenteric fistulas: CT features and potential mimics. Radiographics 2009; 29:197.
  86. Odemiş B, Başar O, Ertuğrul I, et al. Detection of an aortoenteric fistula in a patient with intermittent bleeding. Nat Clin Pract Gastroenterol Hepatol 2008; 5:226.
  87. Perks FJ, Gillespie I, Patel D. Multidetector computed tomography imaging of aortoenteric fistula. J Comput Assist Tomogr 2004; 28:343.
  88. Hagspiel KD, Turba UC, Bozlar U, et al. Diagnosis of aortoenteric fistulas with CT angiography. J Vasc Interv Radiol 2007; 18:497.
  89. Low RN, Wall SD, Jeffrey RB Jr, et al. Aortoenteric fistula and perigraft infection: evaluation with CT. Radiology 1990; 175:157.
  90. Peirce RM, Jenkins RH, Maceneaney P. Paraprosthetic extravasation of enteric contrast: a rare and direct sign of secondary aortoenteric fistula. AJR Am J Roentgenol 2005; 184:S73.
  91. Krupnick AS, Lombardi JV, Engels FH, et al. 18-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography as a novel imaging tool for the diagnosis of aortoenteric fistula and aortic graft infection--a case report. Vasc Endovascular Surg 2003; 37:363.
  92. Causey DA, Fajman WA, Perdue GD, et al. 67Ga scintigraphy in postoperative synthetic graft infections. AJR Am J Roentgenol 1980; 134:1041.
  93. Thompson WM, Jackson DC, Johnsrude IS. Aortoenteric and paraprosthetic-enteric fistulas: radiologic findings. AJR Am J Roentgenol 1976; 127:235.
  94. Fiorani P, Speziale F, Rizzo L, et al. Detection of aortic graft infection with leukocytes labeled with technetium 99m-hexametazime. J Vasc Surg 1993; 17:87.
  95. Degesys GE, Dunnick NR, Silverman PM, et al. Retroperitoneal fibrosis: use of CT in distinguishing among possible causes. AJR Am J Roentgenol 1986; 146:57.
  96. Ganatra RH, Haniffa MA, Hawthorne AB, Rees JI. Aortoenteric fistula complicating an infected aortic graft: diagnosis by leukocyte scintigraphy. Clin Nucl Med 2001; 26:800.
  97. Mark AS, McCarthy SM, Moss AA, Price D. Detection of abdominal aortic graft infection: comparison of CT and in-labeled white blood cell scans. AJR Am J Roentgenol 1985; 144:315.
  98. Gregson R, Craig O. Aorto-enteric fistulae: the role of radiology. Clin Radiol 1983; 34:65.
  99. Wang CX, Duan ZQ, Liang FQ, et al. Diagnosis and treatment of gastrointestinal bleeding post aortic reconstruction. Zhonghua Pu Tong Wai Ke Za Zhi 2006; 15:908.
  100. Upchurch GR Jr, Clair DG, Whittemore AD, Mannick JA. Clostridium septicum bacteremia associated with aortic graft infection. J Vasc Surg 1995; 22:493.
  101. Pelz DM, Rankin RN. Alternate bleeding sites in suspected graft-enteric fistula. AJR Am J Roentgenol 1981; 136:707.
  102. Chan FY, Crawford ES, Coselli JS, et al. In situ prosthetic graft replacement for mycotic aneurysm of the aorta. Ann Thorac Surg 1989; 47:193.
  103. Leonhardt H, Mellander S, Snygg J, Lönn L. Endovascular management of acute bleeding arterioenteric fistulas. Cardiovasc Intervent Radiol 2008; 31:542.
  104. Bowbrick VA, Stansby G. Aortoenteric fistula. J R Soc Med 1999; 92:440.
  105. Menawat SS, Gloviczki P, Serry RD, et al. Management of aortic graft-enteric fistulae. Eur J Vasc Endovasc Surg 1997; 14 Suppl A:74.
  106. van Baalen JM, Kluit AB, Maas J, et al. Diagnosis and therapy of aortic prosthetic fistulas: trends over a 30-year experience. Br J Surg 1996; 83:1729.
  107. Sharp WJ, Hoballah JJ, Mohan CR, et al. The management of the infected aortic prosthesis: a current decade of experience. J Vasc Surg 1994; 19:844.
  108. Schwab CW, McMahon DJ, Phillips G, Pentecost MJ. Aortic balloon control of a traumatic aortoenteric fistula after damage control laparotomy: a case report. J Trauma 1996; 40:1021.
  109. Walker WE, Cooley DA, Duncan JM, et al. The management of aortoduodenal fistula by in situ replacement of the infected abdominal aortic graft. Ann Surg 1987; 205:727.
  110. Chiche L, Pitre J, Sarfati PO. In situ repair of a secondary aortoappendiceal fistula with a rifampin-bonded Dacron graft. Ann Vasc Surg 1999; 13:225.
  111. Torsello G, Sandmann W, Gehrt A, Jungblut RM. In situ replacement of infected vascular prostheses with rifampin-soaked vascular grafts: early results. J Vasc Surg 1993; 17:768.
  112. Zhou W, Lin PH, Bush RL, et al. In situ reconstruction with cryopreserved arterial allografts for management of mycotic aneurysms or aortic prosthetic graft infections: a multi-institutional experience. Tex Heart Inst J 2006; 33:14.
  113. Sivamurthy N, Hiramoto JS, Schneider DB, et al. Cryopreserved Superficial Femoral Vein: The Optimal Conduit for the In Situ Treatment of Aortic Graft Infection? [Abstract]. In: Western Vascular Society, Annual Meeting, 2006
  114. Bisdas T, Bredt M, Pichlmaier M, et al. Eight-year experience with cryopreserved arterial homografts for the in situ reconstruction of abdominal aortic infections. J Vasc Surg 2010; 52:323.
  115. Vogt PR, Pfammatter T, Schlumpf R, et al. In situ repair of aortobronchial, aortoesophageal, and aortoenteric fistulae with cryopreserved aortic homografts. J Vasc Surg 1997; 26:11.
  116. Kieffer E, Bahnini A, Koskas F, et al. In situ allograft replacement of infected infrarenal aortic prosthetic grafts: results in forty-three patients. J Vasc Surg 1993; 17:349.
  117. Lauwers G, Nevelsteen A, Kerremans R, Suy R. Paraprosthetic fistula after aortobifemoral prosthetic reconstruction: treatment by autogenous saphenous venous replacement. A case report. Acta Chir Belg 1993; 93:292.
  118. Clagett GP, Valentine RJ, Hagino RT. Autogenous aortoiliac/femoral reconstruction from superficial femoral-popliteal veins: feasibility and durability. J Vasc Surg 1997; 25:255.
  119. Reilly LM, Stoney RJ, Goldstone J, Ehrenfeld WK. Improved management of aortic graft infection: the influence of operation sequence and staging. J Vasc Surg 1987; 5:421.
  120. Wierman WH, Strahan RW, Spencer JR. Small bowel erosion by synthetic aortic grafts. Am J Surg 1966; 112:791.
  121. El Sakka K, Halawa M, Kotze C, et al. Complications of open abdominal aortic surgery: the endovascular solution. Interact Cardiovasc Thorac Surg 2008; 7:121.
  122. Brountzos EN, Vasdekis S, Kostopanagiotou G, et al. Endovascular treatment of a bleeding secondary aorto-enteric fistula. A case report with 1-year follow-up. Cardiovasc Intervent Radiol 2007; 30:1037.
  123. Ascoli Marchetti A, Gandini R, Ippoliti A, et al. The endovascular management of open aortic surgery complications with emergency stent-graft repair in high-risk patients. J Cardiovasc Surg (Torino) 2007; 48:315.
  124. Tomlinson MA, Gold B, Thomas MH, Browning NG. Endovascular stent graft repair of a recurrent aorto-enteric fistula. Eur J Vasc Endovasc Surg 2002; 24:459.
  125. Karkos CD, Vlachou PA, Hayes PD, et al. Temporary endovascular control of a bleeding aortoenteric fistula by transcatheter coil embolization. J Vasc Interv Radiol 2005; 16:867.
  126. Mok VW, Ting AC, Law S, et al. Combined endovascular stent grafting and endoscopic injection of fibrin sealant for aortoenteric fistula complicating esophagectomy. J Vasc Surg 2004; 40:1234.
  127. Finch L, Heathcock RB, Quigley T, et al. Emergent treatment of a primary aortoenteric fistula with N-butyl 2-cyanoacrylate and endovascular stent. J Vasc Interv Radiol 2002; 13:841.
  128. Burks JA Jr, Faries PL, Gravereaux EC, et al. Endovascular repair of bleeding aortoenteric fistulas: a 5-year experience. J Vasc Surg 2001; 34:1055.
  129. D'Souza CR, Hebert RJ, Trautman AF, Kilam S. Aortoenteric fistula: case review and a new surgical technique. Can J Surg 1987; 30:415.
  130. Deshpande A, Lovelock M, Mossop P, et al. Endovascular repair of an aortoenteric fistula in a high-risk patient. J Endovasc Surg 1999; 6:379.
  131. Lee B, Gutherz Neschis D. Late-term complication of endograft repair for aortoenteric fistula. Vasc Endovascular Surg 2010; 44:395.
  132. Antoniou GA, Koutsias S, Antoniou SA, et al. Outcome after endovascular stent graft repair of aortoenteric fistula: A systematic review. J Vasc Surg 2009; 49:782.
  133. Lonn L, Dias N, Veith Schroeder T, Resch T. Is EVAR the treatment of choice for aortoenteric fistula? J Cardiovasc Surg (Torino) 2010; 51:319.
  134. Jayarajan S, Napolitano LM, Rectenwald JE, Upchurch GR Jr. Primary aortoenteric fistula and endovascular repair. Vasc Endovascular Surg 2009; 43:592.
  135. Barleben AR, Baig MS, Kubaska SM, et al. Endovascular repair of an actively hemorrhaging aortoduodenal fistula. Ann Vasc Surg 2007; 21:629.
  136. Papacharalambous G, Skourtis G, Saliveros A, et al. Endovascular treatment of a primary aortoduodenal fistula: 2-year follow-up of a case report. Vasc Endovascular Surg 2007; 41:265.
  137. Shapiro M, Addis MD, Ellozy SH, et al. Successful endovascular treatment of bleeding aortoenteric fistula: a case report. Ann Vasc Surg 2006; 20:817.
  138. Shah DM, Buchbinder D, Leather RP, et al. Clinical use of the seromuscular jejunal patch for protection of the infected aortic stump. Am J Surg 1983; 146:198.
  139. Song Y, Liu Q, Shen H, et al. Diagnosis and management of primary aortoenteric fistulas--experience learned from eighteen patients. Surgery 2008; 143:43.
  140. Giordanengo F, Boneschi M, Miani S, et al. [Secondary aorto-enteric fistula]. Minerva Cardioangiol 1998; 46:27.