Medline ® Abstract for Reference 5
of 'Antithrombin deficiency'
Impaired cotranslational processing as a mechanism for type I antithrombin deficiency.
Fitches AC, Appleby R, Lane DA, De Stefano V, Leone G, Olds RJ
Most secretory proteins, including antithrombin (AT), are synthesized with a signal peptide, which is cleaved before the mature protein is exported from the cell. The signal peptide is important in the process whereby nascent protein is recognized as requiring subsequent modification within the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). We have identified a novel mutation, 2436T-->C L(-10)P, which affects the central hydrophobic domain of the AT signal peptide, in a proband presenting with venous thrombotic disease and type I AT deficiency. We investigated the basis of the phenotype by examining expression in mammalian cells of a range of variant AT cDNAs with mutations affecting the -10 residue. Glycosylated AT was secreted from COS-7 cells transfected with wild-type AT, -10L deletion, -10V or -10M variants, but not variants with P, T, R, or G at -10. Cell-free expression of wild-type and variant AT cDNAs was then performed in the presence of canine pancreatic microsomes, as a substitute for ER. Variant AT proteins with P, T, R, or G at residue -10 did not undergo posttranslational glycosylation, and their susceptibility to trypsin digestion suggested they had not been translocated into microsomes. Our results suggest that the ability of AT signal peptide to direct the protein to ER for cotranslational processing events appears to be critically dependent on maintaining the hydrophobic nature of the region including residue -10. The investigations have defined impaired cotranslational processing as a hitherto unrecognized cause of hereditary AT deficiency.
Department of Pathology, Dunedin School of Medicine, University of Otago, Dunedin, New Zealand.