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Antiphospholipid syndrome and the kidney

Gerald B Appel, MD
Section Editors
Richard J Glassock, MD, MACP
Peter H Schur, MD
Deputy Editor
Alice M Sheridan, MD


The antiphospholipid syndrome (APS) is characterized by antibodies directed against either phospholipids or plasma proteins bound to anionic phospholipids. Patients with the APS may display a constellation of clinical features including venous and arterial thrombosis, recurrent fetal losses, and thrombocytopenia. This disorder is referred to as the primary APS when it occurs alone; however, it can also be found in association with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), other rheumatic diseases, and certain infections and drugs.

Types of antiphospholipid antibodies (aPL) that have been characterized include:

Antibodies causing a false-positive Venereal Disease Research Laboratory (VDRL) test

Lupus anticoagulants

Anticardiolipin antibodies (aCL)

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Literature review current through: Nov 2017. | This topic last updated: May 08, 2017.
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