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Medline ® Abstract for Reference 20

of 'AIDS-related Kaposi sarcoma: Staging and treatment'

Recrudescent Kaposi's sarcoma after initiation of HAART: a manifestation of immune reconstitution syndrome.
Leidner RS, Aboulafia DM
AIDS Patient Care STDS. 2005;19(10):635.
The objective of this case series and literature review is to characterize the clinical course and prognosis of HIV-infected patients with Kaposi's sarcoma (KS) flare during immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome (IRIS), a heterogeneous and sometimes fatal disorder of immune perturbation after initiation of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART). Medical records of 9 HIV-infected patients with KS flare after virologic and immunologic response to HAART were reviewed from a single institution. An additional 10 cases were abstracted by computerized search of the medical literature. In our single institution series, mean time to onset of KS flare was 5 weeks. Pretreatment mean CD4+ count was 190 cells/mm(3) and mean HIV viral load was 153,934 copies per milliliter. During flare, mean CD4+ count was 256 cells/mm(3) and mean HIV viral load was 1156 copies per milliliter. Similar aggregate results are represented in the literature. Six fatalities are reported, 4 from pulmonary KS and 2 from unrelated causes. Systemic chemotherapy universally led to tumor regression, but was administered in only 10 of 19 cases. In no instance was HAART discontinued. Onset of IRIS-associated KS flare is observed as early as 3 weeks, with most cases diagnosed within 2 months after immunologic and virologic response to HAART. Such a flare does not necessarily portend a poor prognosis. Even for those patients with rapidlysymptomatic KS, early systemic chemotherapy is effective in suppressing IRIS-associated flare. Close clinical supervision is warranted for the KS patient initiating, changing, or resuming HAART. Particular vigilance is recommended for pulmonary involvement.
Division of General Internal Medicine, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington, USA.