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Medline ® Abstract for Reference 55

of 'Acute and early HIV infection: Treatment'

Rapid CD4+ cell decrease after transient cART initiated during primary HIV infection (ANRS PRIMO and SEROCO cohorts).
Seng R, Goujard C, Desquilbet L, Sinet M, Rouzioux C, Deveau C, Boufassa F, Delfraissy JF, Meyer L, Venet A, ANRS PRIMO and SEROCO Study Groups
J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 2008;49(3):251.
OBJECTIVE: To modelize the rate of CD4 cell count decline and its determinants after cessation of combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) started during primary HIV infection (PHI) and compare it with never-treated patients.
METHODS: Kinetics of CD4 counts were analyzed on the square root scale by using a mixed-effects model in 170 patients who received cART during PHI from the Primary Infection (PRIMO) cohort and 123 never-treated patients from the Seroconverters (SEROCO) cohort.
RESULTS: After cART interruption in the PRIMO cohort, the CD4 cell count fell rapidly during the first 5 months and more slowly thereafter. The timing of treatment initiation had no influence on the rate of CD4 cell decline. In contrast, a larger increase in CD4 cell counts during cART was associated with a steeper decline and a larger loss of CD4 cells after treatment interruption. The mean CD4 cell loss 3 years postinterruption was 383 cells per microliter. In the SEROCO cohort, the CD4 T-cell decline was less steep (3-year CD4 loss 239 cells/microL). As a result, the mean CD4 cell counts were similar (416 cells/microL) 3 years after cART interruption (PRIMO) or after infection (SEROCO).
CONCLUSIONS: These data question the benefit of a limited course of cART even when initiated within 3 months after PHI diagnosis.
INSERM U822, Le Kremlin-Bicêtre, France.