Smarter Decisions,
Better Care

UpToDate synthesizes the most recent medical information into evidence-based practical recommendations clinicians trust to make the right point-of-care decisions.

  • Rigorous editorial process: Evidence-based treatment recommendations
  • World-Renowned physician authors: over 5,100 physician authors and editors around the globe
  • Innovative technology: integrates into the workflow; access from EMRs

Choose from the list below to learn more about subscriptions for a:


Subscribers log in here


Related articles

Zoonoses from dogs

INTRODUCTION

Pets serve valuable social roles in society [1,2]. Pets may lower blood pressure, reduce cholesterol and triglyceride levels, and improve feelings of loneliness, while increasing opportunities for exercise, outdoor activities, and socialization [1].

In a small, randomized, controlled study of 28 patients with chronic age-related disabilities living in a nursing home, patients were randomly assigned to animal interaction ("pet therapy") compared with usual activities (control group) [3]. The "pet therapy" group patients had improved symptoms of depression and a significant decrease in blood pressure values as compared with the control patients.

Despite these benefits, pets present zoonotic risks, especially for immunocompromised hosts [4-6]. The epidemiology of dog-related zoonoses will be reviewed here. The epidemiology of pet-related zoonoses other than dogs is presented separately (see "Zoonoses from cats" and "Zoonoses from pets other than dogs and cats"). The clinical management of specific zoonotic diseases is discussed under the appropriate topic reviews.

DEFINITION

A zoonosis is an animal disease that is transmissible to humans. Humans are usually an accidental host that acquire disease through close contact with an infected animal who may or may not be symptomatic.

INCIDENCE

The American Pet Association estimates that there are approximately 45 million dog owners in the United States, who own a total of about 63 million dogs (http://www.apapets.org). The most common route of infection related to dogs is through bites, especially in children. Dogs bite more than 4.7 million people a year; in 2001, an estimated 368,245 persons were treated in United States hospital emergency departments for nonfatal dog bite-related injuries [7]. (See "Soft tissue infections due to dog and cat bites".)

                                       

Subscribers log in here

To continue reading this article, you must log in with your personal, hospital, or group practice subscription. For more information or to purchase a personal subscription, click below on the option that best describes you:
Literature review current through: Aug 2014. | This topic last updated: Jul 31, 2014.
The content on the UpToDate website is not intended nor recommended as a substitute for medical advice, diagnosis, or treatment. Always seek the advice of your own physician or other qualified health care professional regarding any medical questions or conditions. The use of this website is governed by the UpToDate Terms of Use ©2014 UpToDate, Inc.
References
Top
  1. Anderson WP, Reid CM, Jennings GL. Pet ownership and risk factors for cardiovascular disease. Med J Aust 1992; 157:298.
  2. Parslow RA, Jorm AF. Pet ownership and risk factors for cardiovascular disease: another look. Med J Aust 2003; 179:466.
  3. Stasi MF, Amati D, Costa C, et al. Pet-therapy: a trial for institutionalized frail elderly patients. Arch Gerontol Geriatr Suppl 2004; :407.
  4. Bisseru B. Disease of Man Acquired from His Pets, J. B. Lippincott Company, Philadelphia 1967.
  5. Elliot DL, Tolle SW, Goldberg L, Miller JB. Pet-associated illness. N Engl J Med 1985; 313:985.
  6. Trevejo RT, Barr MC, Robinson RA. Important emerging bacterial zoonotic infections affecting the immunocompromised. Vet Res 2005; 36:493.
  7. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Nonfatal dog bite-related injuries treated in hospital emergency departments--United States, 2001. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep 2003; 52:605.
  8. Riordan A, Tarlow M. Pets and diseases. Br J Hosp Med 1996; 56:321.
  9. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Human rabies--Florida, 2004. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep 2005; 54:767.
  10. Talan DA, Citron DM, Abrahamian FM, et al. Bacteriologic analysis of infected dog and cat bites. Emergency Medicine Animal Bite Infection Study Group. N Engl J Med 1999; 340:85.
  11. Bobo RA, Newton EJ. A previously undescribed gram-negative bacillus causing septicemia and meningitis. Am J Clin Pathol 1976; 65:564.
  12. Brenner DJ, Hollis DG, Fanning GR, Weaver RE. Capnocytophaga canimorsus sp. nov. (formerly CDC group DF-2), a cause of septicemia following dog bite, and C. cynodegmi sp. nov., a cause of localized wound infection following dog bite. J Clin Microbiol 1989; 27:231.
  13. Pers C, Gahrn-Hansen B, Frederiksen W. Capnocytophaga canimorsus septicemia in Denmark, 1982-1995: review of 39 cases. Clin Infect Dis 1996; 23:71.
  14. Lion C, Escande F, Burdin JC. Capnocytophaga canimorsus infections in human: review of the literature and cases report. Eur J Epidemiol 1996; 12:521.
  15. Le Moal G, Landron C, Grollier G, et al. Meningitis due to Capnocytophaga canimorsus after receipt of a dog bite: case report and review of the literature. Clin Infect Dis 2003; 36:e42.
  16. Khawari AA, Myers JW, Ferguson DA Jr, Moorman JP. Sepsis and meningitis due to Capnocytophaga cynodegmi after splenectomy. Clin Infect Dis 2005; 40:1709.
  17. Lucero NE, Jacob NO, Ayala SM, et al. Unusual clinical presentation of brucellosis caused by Brucella canis. J Med Microbiol 2005; 54:505.
  18. Rumley RL, Chapman SW. Brucella canis: an infectious cause of prolonged fever of undetermined origin. South Med J 1986; 79:626.
  19. Forbes LB. Brucella abortus infection in 14 farm dogs. J Am Vet Med Assoc 1990; 196:911.
  20. Mishal J, Ben-Israel N, Levin Y, et al. Brucellosis outbreak: analysis of risk factors and serologic screening. Int J Mol Med 1999; 4:655.
  21. Kaplan JE, Masur H, Holmes KK, et al. Guidelines for preventing opportunistic infections among HIV-infected persons--2002. Recommendations of the U.S. Public Health Service and the Infectious Diseases Society of America. MMWR Recomm Rep 2002; 51:1.
  22. Wright JG, Tengelsen LA, Smith KE, et al. Multidrug-resistant Salmonella Typhimurium in four animal facilities. Emerg Infect Dis 2005; 11:1235.
  23. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Update: recall of dry dog and cat food products associated with human Salmonella Schwarzengrund infections--United States, 2008. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep 2008; 57:1200.
  24. Finley R, Reid-Smith R, Ribble C, et al. The occurrence and anti-microbial susceptibility of Salmonellae isolated from commercially available pig ear pet treats. Zoonoses Public Health 2008; 55:455.
  25. Workman SN, Mathison GE, Lavoie MC. Pet dogs and chicken meat as reservoirs of Campylobacter spp. in Barbados. J Clin Microbiol 2005; 43:2642.
  26. Damborg P, Olsen KE, Møller Nielsen E, Guardabassi L. Occurrence of Campylobacter jejuni in pets living with human patients infected with C. jejuni. J Clin Microbiol 2004; 42:1363.
  27. Wolfs TF, Duim B, Geelen SP, et al. Neonatal sepsis by Campylobacter jejuni: genetically proven transmission from a household puppy. Clin Infect Dis 2001; 32:E97.
  28. Thompson RC. The zoonotic significance and molecular epidemiology of Giardia and giardiasis. Vet Parasitol 2004; 126:15.
  29. Eligio-García L, Cortes-Campos A, Jiménez-Cardoso E. Genotype of Giardia intestinalis isolates from children and dogs and its relationship to host origin. Parasitol Res 2005; 97:1.
  30. Traub RJ, Monis PT, Robertson I, et al. Epidemiological and molecular evidence supports the zoonotic transmission of Giardia among humans and dogs living in the same community. Parasitology 2004; 128:253.
  31. Glickman LT, Schantz PM, Cypess RH. Canine and human toxocariasis: review of transmission, pathogenesis, and clinical disease. J Am Vet Med Assoc 1979; 175:1265.
  32. Coelho LM, Silva MV, Dini CY, et al. Human toxocariasis: a seroepidemiological survey in schoolchildren of Sorocaba, Brazil. Mem Inst Oswaldo Cruz 2004; 99:553.
  33. Duncan AW, Correa MT, Levine JF, Breitschwerdt EB. The dog as a sentinel for human infection: prevalence of Borrelia burgdorferi C6 antibodies in dogs from southeastern and mid-Atlantic states. Vector Borne Zoonotic Dis 2004; 4:221.
  34. Johnson JL, Ginsberg HS, Zhioua E, et al. Passive tick surveillance, dog seropositivity, and incidence of human lyme disease. Vector Borne Zoonotic Dis 2004; 4:137.
  35. Lindenmayer JM, Marshall D, Onderdonk AB. Dogs as sentinels for Lyme disease in Massachusetts. Am J Public Health 1991; 81:1448.
  36. Breitschwerdt EB, Moncol DJ, Corbett WT, et al. Antibodies to spotted fever-group rickettsiae in dogs in North Carolina. Am J Vet Res 1987; 48:1436.
  37. Gordon JC, Gordon SW, Peterson E, Philip RN. Epidemiology of Rocky Mountain spotted fever in Ohio, 1981: serologic evaluation of canines and rickettsial isolation from ticks associated with human case exposure sites. Am J Trop Med Hyg 1984; 33:1026.
  38. Magnarelli LA, Anderson JF, Philip RN, Burgdorfer W. Antibodies to spotted fever-group rickettsiae in dogs and prevalence of infected ticks in southern Connecticut. Am J Vet Res 1982; 43:656.
  39. Paddock CD, Brenner O, Vaid C, et al. Short report: concurrent Rocky Mountain spotted fever in a dog and its owner. Am J Trop Med Hyg 2002; 66:197.
  40. Sexton DJ, Burgdorfer W, Thomas L, Norment BR. Rocky Mountain spotted fever in Mississippi: survey for spotted fever antibodies in dogs and for spotted fever group reckettsiae in dog ticks. Am J Epidemiol 1976; 103:192.
  41. Demma LJ, Traeger MS, Nicholson WL, et al. Rocky Mountain spotted fever from an unexpected tick vector in Arizona. N Engl J Med 2005; 353:587.
  42. Buller RS, Arens M, Hmiel SP, et al. Ehrlichia ewingii, a newly recognized agent of human ehrlichiosis. N Engl J Med 1999; 341:148.
  43. Theis JH. Public health aspects of dirofilariasis in the United States. Vet Parasitol 2005; 133:157.
  44. Gavgani AS, Mohite H, Edrissian GH, et al. Domestic dog ownership in Iran is a risk factor for human infection with Leishmania infantum. Am J Trop Med Hyg 2002; 67:511.
  45. Moreira ED Jr, Mendes de Souza VM, Sreenivasan M, et al. Assessment of an optimized dog-culling program in the dynamics of canine Leishmania transmission. Vet Parasitol 2004; 122:245.
  46. Lo Re V 3rd, Brennan PJ, Wadlin J, et al. Infected branchial cleft cyst due to Bordetella bronchiseptica in an immunocompetent patient. J Clin Microbiol 2001; 39:4210.
  47. Stefanelli P, Mastrantonio P, Hausman SZ, et al. Molecular characterization of two Bordetella bronchiseptica strains isolated from children with coughs. J Clin Microbiol 1997; 35:1550.
  48. Woolfrey BF, Moody JA. Human infections associated with Bordetella bronchiseptica. Clin Microbiol Rev 1991; 4:243.
  49. Goldberg JD, Kamboj M, Ford R, et al. 'Kennel cough' in a patient following allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplant. Bone Marrow Transplant 2009; 44:381.
  50. Dworkin MS, Sullivan PS, Buskin SE, et al. Bordetella bronchiseptica infection in human immunodeficiency virus-infected patients. Clin Infect Dis 1999; 28:1095.
  51. Buhariwalla F, Cann B, Marrie TJ. A dog-related outbreak of Q fever. Clin Infect Dis 1996; 23:753.
  52. Komiya T, Sadamasu K, Toriniwa H, et al. Epidemiological survey on the route of Coxiella burnetii infection in an animal hospital. J Infect Chemother 2003; 9:151.
  53. Boni M, Davoust B, Tissot-Dupont H, Raoult D. Survey of seroprevalence of Q fever in dogs in the southeast of France, French Guyana, Martinique, Senegal and the Ivory Coast. Vet Microbiol 1998; 64:1.
  54. Trevejo RT, Rigau-Pérez JG, Ashford DA, et al. Epidemic leptospirosis associated with pulmonary hemorrhage-Nicaragua, 1995. J Infect Dis 1998; 178:1457.
  55. Feigin RD, Lobes LA Jr, Anderson D, Pickering L. Human leptospirosis from immunized dogs. Ann Intern Med 1973; 79:777.
  56. Behravesh CB, Ferraro A, Deasy M 3rd, et al. Human Salmonella infections linked to contaminated dry dog and cat food, 2006-2008. Pediatrics 2010; 126:477.
  57. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Notes from the field: Human Salmonella infantis infections linked to dry dog food--United States and Canada, 2012. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep 2012; 61:436.
  58. Weese JS, Dick H, Willey BM, et al. Suspected transmission of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus between domestic pets and humans in veterinary clinics and in the household. Vet Microbiol 2006; 115:148.
  59. Hanselman BA, Kruth SA, Rousseau J, Weese JS. Coagulase positive staphylococcal colonization of humans and their household pets. Can Vet J 2009; 50:954.
  60. Lloyd DH. Reservoirs of antimicrobial resistance in pet animals. Clin Infect Dis 2007; 45 Suppl 2:S148.
  61. Lenz J, Joffe D, Kauffman M, et al. Perceptions, practices, and consequences associated with foodborne pathogens and the feeding of raw meat to dogs. Can Vet J 2009; 50:637.
  62. Glaser CA, Angulo FJ, Rooney JA. Animal-associated opportunistic infections among persons infected with the human immunodeficiency virus. Clin Infect Dis 1994; 18:14.
  63. Kotton CN. Zoonoses in solid-organ and hematopoietic stem cell transplant recipients. Clin Infect Dis 2007; 44:857.
  64. Robinson RA, Pugh RN. Dogs, zoonoses and immunosuppression. J R Soc Promot Health 2002; 122:95.
  65. Bingham GM, Budke CM, Slater MR. Knowledge and perceptions of dog-associated zoonoses: Brazos County, Texas, USA. Prev Vet Med 2010; 93:211.