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INTRODUCTION — Zika virus is an arthropod-borne flavivirus transmitted by mosquitoes. This topic will discuss issues related to Zika virus infection in pregnant women. Other issues related to Zika virus infection, including epidemiology, geographic distribution, transmission, clinical findings, differential diagnosis, complications, treatment, and postnatal evaluation of the infant are reviewed separately. (See "Zika virus infection: An overview" and "Congenital Zika virus infection: Clinical features, evaluation, and management of the neonate".)
DIAGNOSIS OF ZIKA VIRUS INFECTION IN PREGNANT WOMEN
Clinical approach — We diagnose Zika virus infection in pregnant woman based on guidance published by the United States Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) (described below). Diagnostic approaches may vary depending on available resources.
The diagnostic approach is different in pregnant compared with nonpregnant individuals because Zika virus RNA can persist longer (10 weeks after symptom onset) in a pregnant woman's serum and because of the potential for congenital infection, even if the mother is asymptomatic [1-3].
Screening — Health care providers should determine whether the pregnant woman is at risk of Zika virus infection at each prenatal visit. Both possible exposure and possible symptoms should be assessed.
Evaluation for possible exposure — A positive exposure history includes:
●Current or recent residence in an area where mosquito-borne transmission of Zika virus infection has been reported
●Recent travel to an area where mosquito-borne transmission of Zika virus infection has been reported
●Unprotected sexual contact with a person (male or female) who resides in or has traveled to an area where mosquito-borne transmission of Zika virus infection has been reported. Sexual contact may be vaginal, anal, or oral, and may involve shared sex toys.
Updates regarding the geographic distribution of Zika virus may be viewed at the United States Centers for Disease Control and Prevention website and the Pan American Health Organization/World Health Organization website. These geographic areas are evolving and discussed separately. (See "Zika virus infection: An overview", section on 'Geographic distribution'.)
Evaluation for possible symptoms — Women should also be asked whether they or their partner have symptoms consistent with Zika virus infection. These include acute onset of:
Approximately 20 percent of infected individuals have these symptoms, which are often mild . Symptoms appear 3 to 14 days after exposure to the virus . Signs and symptoms of Zika virus infection are described in more detail separately. (See "Zika virus infection: An overview", section on 'Symptoms and signs'.)
Laboratory testing — Pregnant women with possible Zika virus exposure are tested regardless of symptom status. The laboratory approach depends on when the symptoms or possible exposure occurred (<2 weeks versus 2 to 12 weeks versus >12 weeks from the date of laboratory testing) and circumstances of the exposure (ongoing exposure versus limited episode). The American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists (ACOG) recommends that obstetrical providers use laboratories that can perform combined Zika virus real time reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (rRT-PCR) and immunoglobulin M (IgM) and plaque reduction neutralization test (PRNT) testing, rather than forwarding negative rRT-PCR specimens for additional testing in another lab . When drawing blood for Zika virus testing, ACOG also recommends that obstetrical providers consider storing additional serum samples in case further testing is needed. Some health departments and private laboratories request concurrent testing of urine and serum samples at <2 weeks.
Symptoms or limited exposure within 12 weeks of evaluation — The CDC’s diagnostic approach for women evaluated <2 or 2 to 12 weeks from onset of symptoms or asymptomatic possible limited Zika virus exposure is illustrated by the following algorithm (algorithm 1) . Descriptions of these diagnostic tests are available in the table (table 1) and separately. (See "Zika virus infection: An overview", section on 'Diagnosis'.)
Symptoms or limited exposure >12 weeks from evaluation — For pregnant women with symptom onset or an asymptomatic possible limited Zika virus exposure >12 weeks from evaluation, the CDC suggests consideration of immunoglobulin M (IgM) antibody testing and fetal ultrasound examination. (See 'Fetal ultrasonography' below.)
Ongoing exposure — Asymptomatic women in the first and second trimesters who have an ongoing risk of possible Zika virus exposure are tested as part of routine prenatal care (algorithm 1 and table 1) . ACOG recommends testing during the first and again in the second trimesters . When caring for these women, one author of this topic (CL) checks Zika IgM at the first prenatal visit and, if it is negative, repeats the test at 16 to 24 weeks of gestation, as confirmation of maternal infection can impact the frequency and focus of ultrasound examination as well as decision-making about possible pregnancy termination. Local levels of Zika virus transmission and laboratory capacity impact this decision.
Resources — Zika virus testing is performed at the CDC Arbovirus Diagnostic Laboratory, most state health departments, and some commercial laboratories.
The CDC maintains a clinical consultation service (available 24 hours per day, seven days per week) for health care providers evaluating and caring for pregnant women and infants with possible Zika virus infection (telephone 1-800-CDC-INFO or email at firstname.lastname@example.org).
The World Health Organization (WHO) has also published a decision chart to provide guidance for evaluation of pregnant women with known or possible Zika virus exposure.
Diagnosis of confirmed, presumptive, or possible infection
●Confirmed Zika virus infection:
•Detection of Zika virus or Zika virus RNA or antigen in any body fluid or tissue specimen or
•Positive or equivocal Zika virus or dengue virus IgM antibody test results on serum or cerebrospinal fluid with a positive (≥10) plaque reduction neutralization test (PRNT) titer for Zika virus together with a negative (<10) PRNT titer for dengue virus
●Presumptive recent Zika virus or flavivirus infection:
•Positive or equivocal Zika virus or dengue virus IgM antibody test result that needs to be confirmed by PRNT
●Possible Zika virus infection:
•Serology test results can be difficult to interpret, particularly in persons who were previously infected with or vaccinated against flaviviruses. For this reason, pregnant women with laboratory evidence of recent flavivirus infection are considered to have possible Zika virus infection.
Pathogenesis — Studies in animals and human placental studies support the hypothesis that maternal infection leads to placental infection and injury, followed by transmission of the virus across the placenta and ultimately to the fetal brain, where it targets and destroys neuronal progenitor cells and, to a lesser extent, neuronal cells at all stages of maturity [6-13]. In the fetal brain, neuronal growth, proliferation, migration, and differentiation are disrupted, thus slowing and impairing normal brain development. In the placenta, the virus primarily infects and replicates in placental macrophages (Hofbauer cells), and to a lesser extent cytotrophoblasts . Viral replication appears to induce type I interferon, pro-inflammatory cytokines, and antiviral gene expression. (See 'Placental histopathology' below.)
Risk of vertical transmission — The risk for vertical transmission exists throughout pregnancy and in offspring of both symptomatic and asymptomatic mothers [14-20]. However, the greatest risk of serious fetal/newborn sequelae appears to be with first-trimester infection, but serious fetal/newborn sequelae also occur with second-trimester infection [14,16,21,22]. It is unknown whether fetal infection in the third trimester can cause neurologic abnormalities that manifest later in childhood , but one stillbirth has been reported in woman infected at 32 weeks of gestation .
The rate of vertical transmission and the rate at which infected fetuses manifest complications are unknown . In a cohort including 88 pregnant women who presented to a Brazilian clinic with a rash at 5 to 38 weeks of gestation, 72 women (82 percent) had a positive test for Zika virus infection . Among 42 of these women who underwent ultrasonography, fetal abnormalities were detected in 12 (29 percent).
Clinical manifestations — In utero Zika virus infection can result in serious sequelae related to the central nervous system [1,14,24-31]. In a review of the major findings of 14 studies with adequate radiological assessment of suspected or confirmed Zika virus-infected fetuses, the most common abnormalities among the 66 fetuses were ventriculomegaly (33 percent), microcephaly (24 percent), and intracranial calcifications (27 percent) .
Features of congenital Zika virus syndrome described in case reports and small case series are described below. However, the full spectrum of the syndrome is still being investigated .
Microcephaly — The World Health Organization (WHO), the United States Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, and other scientific groups have concluded that the Zika virus can cause microcephaly [32,33], based on a rapidly increasing body of observational data and identification of Zika virus infection in the cerebrospinal fluid and serum of newborns with microcephaly [24,26,27,34,35].
Microcephaly appears to be a consequence of Zika infection early in pregnancy; newborn microcephaly has not been reported in the offspring of women infected in the third trimester [14,16].
All estimates of microcephaly risk are uncertain because available data are very limited due to poor ascertainment of infection rates (symptomatic and asymptomatic) and rates of microcephaly. Retrospective analysis of data from French Polynesia estimated a baseline microcephaly prevalence of 2 cases per 10,000 neonates and a risk of microcephaly associated with Zika virus infection of 95 cases (95% CI 34-191) per 10,000 women infected in the first trimester, based on eight microcephaly cases . Using these estimates, the risk of microcephaly associated with Zika virus infection in the first trimester during that outbreak was approximately 1 percent. When Brazilian data were considered, the estimated risk of microcephaly due to Zika infection in the first trimester ranged from 0.88 to 13.2 percent .
Definition of Zika virus-related microcephaly — There is no standard definition for diagnosis of microcephaly. (See "Microcephaly in infants and children: Etiology and evaluation".)
The WHO has defined microcephaly as follows [37-39]: Occipitofrontal circumference (head circumference) greater than two standard deviations below the mean or less than the third percentile based on standard growth charts for sex, age, and gestational age at birth (eg, Intergrowth-21st standards (table 2) ).
The United States Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) also define microcephaly as an occipitofrontal circumference below the 3rd percentile . Although this theoretically identifies 3 percent of infants as possibly abnormal, it is a practical screening tool for microcephaly since percentile growth charts are typically used for assessing growth in pediatric health care, and this is the lowest cut-off on these charts. Both the CDC and WHO recommend careful clinical evaluation of these infants before making a definitive diagnosis of microcephaly and determining appropriate follow-up . For example, the occipitofrontal circumference should be disproportionately small in comparison with the length of the infant and not explained by other etiologies or congenital disorders. If an infant's occipitofrontal circumference is ≥3rd percentile but is notably disproportionate to the length of the infant or if the infant has deficits related to the central nervous system, additional evaluation for Zika virus infection may also be appropriate.
The WHO has further defined "Zika virus–related microcephaly" as microcephaly with a molecular or epidemiologic link to Zika virus in the absence of other conditions known to cause microcephaly . A molecular or epidemiologic link to Zika virus is defined as one of the following:
●Mother had confirmed case of Zika virus infection during pregnancy.
●Mother had sexual contact during pregnancy with a person with confirmed Zika virus infection.
●Mother had typical clinical manifestations of Zika virus infection (one or more of the following: maculopapular pruritic rash, arthralgia, conjunctivitis, or fever) and relevant epidemiologic exposure during pregnancy (residence in or travel to an area where mosquito-borne transmission of Zika virus infection has been reported).
●Amniocentesis with detection of Zika virus in amniotic fluid via polymerase chain reaction (PCR).
●Postmortem detection of Zika virus in fetal brain tissue via PCR.
Central nervous system abnormalities — Other central nervous system abnormalities include ventriculomegaly; intracranial calcifications, especially at the gray matter-white matter junction, which is unusual for other congenital infections ; extra-axial fluid; abnormal gyral patterns (eg, polymicrogyria); decreased brain parenchymal volume; cortical atrophy and malformation; hypoplasia of the cerebellum, cerebellar vermis, or brainstem; delayed myelination; and thinning or hypoplasia of the corpus callosum [2,29,30,45,46]. Redundant scalp skin is a reflection of disruption of fetal brain growth .
Adverse pregnancy outcomes — Adverse pregnancy outcomes include fetal loss (miscarriage, stillbirth) [14,24,26,48,49], impaired fetal growth [14,49], and hydrops fetalis . Placental insufficiency is the mechanism postulated for fetal loss later in pregnancy.
Postnatal findings — Most of the following findings are first identified postnatally, although some may detected prenatally.
●Ocular abnormalities — Ocular abnormalities are common and may include pigmentary maculopathy, circumscribed chorioretinal atrophy, optic nerve abnormalities, microcornea, microphthalmia, falciform folds, cataracts, retinal dysplasia, persistent fetal vasculature, vascular attenuation, nystagmus [25,50-53]. Almost all of these abnormalities are not detectable prenatally.
●Hearing loss — Hearing loss has been reported in two series [54,55]. In the larger series of 70 children with microcephaly and laboratory evidence of congenital Zika virus infection, five (7.1 percent) had sensorineural hearing loss of varying severity and laterality when tested at 16 to 315 days of age . One of the cases may have been related, at least in part, to amikacin therapy. All five children with hearing loss were among the 44 children with severe microcephaly (at least three standard deviations below the mean for gestational age and sex). Hearing loss is not detectable prenatally.
●Neurologic abnormalities — Reported neurologic abnormalities include hypertonia, hypotonia, spasticity, hyperreflexia, severe irritability, and seizures [54,56]. These abnormalities are not typically detected prenatally.
●Club foot, or arthrogryposis — Positional abnormalities, such as club foot and arthrogryposis, have been observed and may be of neurogenic origin . These abnormalities may be detected prenatally.
Placental histopathology — Although Zika virus infects and replicates in the placenta and disrupts the fetoplacental barrier (see 'Pathogenesis' above), case reports suggest that placental inflammation and cell death are not prominent findings.
A series from Brazil described histopathological findings in tissue from two newborns with microcephaly and severe arthrogryposis who died shortly after birth, tissue from a microcephalic infant who died at age two months, and two placentas from spontaneous abortions . In all cases, the mothers lived in Brazil and had symptoms consistent with Zika virus infection in the first trimester. The infants were born at 36, 38, and 38 weeks of gestation; the miscarriages were at 11 and 13 weeks of gestation. The only placenta available from a live birth was normal. One of the placentas from a miscarriage had no significant findings; immunohistochemical testing of placental tissue was negative for Zika virus, but Zika virus reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (rRT-PCR) was positive. The other placenta from a miscarriage showed dense and heterogeneous chorionic villi with calcification, sclerosis, edema, increased perivillous fibrin deposition, and patchy lymphohistiocytic intervillositis. Immunohistochemical testing was positive for Zika virus, and Zika virus rRT-PCR was positive.
Examination of the placenta from a pregnancy termination at 21 weeks of gestation due to first trimester Zika virus infection revealed prominently enlarged, hydropic chorionic villi with hyperplasia and focal proliferation of Hofbauer cells . There was no acute or chronic villitis, villous necrosis, remote necroinflammatory abnormalities, chorioamnionitis, funisitis, or hemorrhage.
Nosocomial transmission — Transmission of Zika virus via occupational exposure in a health care setting (eg, clinic, ultrasound suite, antepartum/postpartum/labor unit) has not been described. Standard precautions are appropriate for protection of health care personnel and patients from Zika virus infection in these settings . This is true for the infant being evaluated as well. (See "Infection prevention: Precautions for preventing transmission of infection", section on 'Standard precautions'.)
Maternal treatment — There is no specific treatment for Zika virus infection. Management consists of rest and symptomatic treatment including drinking fluids to prevent dehydration and administration of acetaminophen to relieve fever and pain .
Aspirin and other nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) should be avoided until dengue infection has been ruled out to reduce the risk of hemorrhage. NSAIDs should also be avoided in pregnant women ≥32 weeks of gestation to minimize risk for premature closure of the ductus arteriosus. (See "Inhibition of acute preterm labor", section on 'Fetal side effects'.)
The World Health Organization (WHO) has issued initial guidance on psychosocial support for patients and families affected by Zika virus infection and associated complications .
Fetal ultrasonography — Ultrasound is the major modality used to screen for congenital Zika virus infection. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is more sensitive, but more costly and less readily available . It is appropriate when clarification of ultrasound findings would impact pregnancy management.
The minimum time between occurrence of maternal Zika virus infection and development of sonographic signs suggestive of fetal infection is not known. In women infected early in pregnancy, ultrasound findings associated with fetal infection may be detected as early as 18 to 20 weeks of gestation, but are usually detected in the late second and early third trimesters of pregnancy [43,63-65].
One group has recommended performing the first ultrasound examination four weeks from the suspected exposure, followed by serial ultrasound examinations every four weeks; at least one ultrasound should be performed between 28 and 33 weeks of gestation [9,66]. One author of this topic (CL) obtains ultrasound examinations every two weeks starting six weeks after the presumed date of infection and ideally by 18 weeks of gestation.
Candidates and frequency of examination — Prenatal ultrasonography to evaluate for fetal abnormalities consistent with congenital Zika virus syndrome is recommended for all pregnant women tested for Zika, regardless of laboratory findings . The frequency of examination, which depends on the clinical scenario, is discussed below and summarized in the table (table 3).
Women with positive laboratory findings — The United States Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) and ACOG suggest fetal ultrasound examination every three to four weeks to look for signs of congenital Zika virus infection and monitor fetal growth in pregnant women with laboratory evidence of [2,5]:
●Recent Zika virus infection
●Recent flavivirus infection (specific virus cannot be identified)
●Presumptive recent Zika or flavivirus virus infection (see 'Diagnosis of confirmed, presumptive, or possible infection' above)
If the ultrasound examination is abnormal, amniocentesis for diagnosis of fetal infection should be considered. (See 'Prenatal (fetal) diagnosis' below.)
Women with negative laboratory findings
●<12 weeks from symptom onset or possible exposure – If maternal laboratory testing proximate to symptoms or exposure does not suggest infection and exposure is not ongoing, serial ultrasound examinations are unlikely to be needed, after an initial appropriately timed (as discussed above (see 'Fetal ultrasonography' above)) normal ultrasound examination .
If the ultrasound examination shows abnormalities consistent with congenital Zika virus syndrome, Zika virus reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (rRT-PCR) and IgM tests are performed, and clinical management is individualized based on the results of these tests and ultrasound findings.
●>12 weeks from symptom onset or possible exposure – An ultrasound examination is reasonable for women with possible symptoms or limited exposure to Zika virus infection, but a negative IgM antibody test >12 weeks from symptom onset or possible exposure. If the ultrasound examination is normal, one or more follow-up ultrasound examinations is reasonable given that Zika virus laboratory test results decline over time and may be negative >12 weeks after an acute infection.
As discussed above, if the ultrasound examination shows abnormalities consistent with congenital Zika virus syndrome, Zika virus reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (rRT-PCR) and IgM tests are performed, and clinical management is individualized based on the results of these tests and ultrasound findings.
●Ongoing risk for Zika virus exposure – For women with ongoing risk of acquiring Zika virus infection (algorithm 1), but negative diagnostic laboratory findings and a normal second trimester ultrasound examination, serial ultrasound examinations every three to four weeks are reasonable, but guidance for monitoring these pregnancies has not been published. The resources and costs involved for frequent testing are a major challenge. One author of this topic (CL) screens for fetal abnormalities at 18 and 22 weeks of gestation in asymptomatic women with ongoing risk of Zika virus exposure.
As discussed above, if the ultrasound examination shows abnormalities consistent with congenital Zika virus syndrome, Zika virus reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (rRT-PCR) and IgM tests are performed, and clinical management is individualized based on the results of these tests and ultrasound findings.
Procedure — The International Society of Ultrasound in Obstetrics and Gynecology interim guidance on ultrasound for Zika virus infection in pregnancy recommends the following components for ultrasound screening for fetal Zika virus infection :
●Routine biometry to detect microcephaly. Accurate assessment of gestational age early in pregnancy is important for establishing a diagnosis of microcephaly late in pregnancy. (See "Prenatal assessment of gestational age and estimated date of delivery".)
Microcephaly is frequently detected in the mid to late second trimester, and can be an isolated finding. In the United States, the CDC defines microcephaly as head circumference <3rd percentile for gestational age, which can be determined using the Intergrowth-21st fetal head circumference reference chart . The Society for Maternal-Fetal Medicine defines isolated fetal microcephaly as head circumference ≥3 standard deviations below the mean for gestational age and considers the diagnosis of pathologic microcephaly certain when the head circumference is >5 standard deviations below the mean for gestational age .
In severe cases, the skull can appear collapsed, with overlapping sutures and redundant skin folds, intracranial herniation of orbital fat, and clot in the confluence of sinuses .
●Assessment for intracranial calcifications. Intracranial calcifications are sometimes evident in the second trimester, but more often in the third trimester. They were most commonly observed at the gray matter-white matter junction in one study . The basal ganglia and/or thalamus were also commonly involved.
●Anatomic survey to look for findings that may be associated with Zika virus infection (table 4). Findings that may occur with or without microcephaly and intracranial calcifications, include [32,46,56]:
•Irregular head shape including a sloping forehead
•Callosal dysgenesis or agenesis
•Cerebellar hypoplasia or vermian dysgenesis
•Enlarged cisterna magna
•Abnormal cortical development with reduced amount of brain parenchyma and increased amount of cerebrospinal fluid around the brain
If the head circumference is small (>2 but not ≥3 standard deviations below the mean for gestational age) or not enlarging appropriately, a detailed neurosonographic examination should be performed as fetuses with head circumference in this range due to Zika virus infection will have additional findings such as periventricular and intraparenchymal echogenic foci, ventriculomegaly, cerebellar hypoplasia, and cortical abnormalities . A sloping forehead when the fetal profile is imaged also suggests developing microcephaly. MRI may detect abnormalities not visible on ultrasound [1,70] and may also be a useful adjunct when intracranial abnormalities are found.
Estimation of fetal weight and diagnosis of growth restriction is challenging in the microcephalic fetus since formulas that calculate fetal weight commonly use the biparietal diameter or head circumference measurement. If the fetal head is abnormal, formulas using only femur length and abdominal circumference should be used to estimate fetal weight and monitor growth. The software in most ultrasound equipment can make this adjustment. Online calculators are also available . (See "Fetal growth restriction: Diagnosis", section on 'FL/AC ratio'.)
The International Society of Ultrasound in Obstetrics and Gynecology provides a free online webinar to help sonographers with diagnosis Congenital Zika Virus Syndrome.
Prenatal (fetal) diagnosis — Zika virus rRT-PCR positivity in amniotic fluid is diagnostic of fetal viral exposure but not predictive of outcome. The indications for diagnostic amniocentesis, the appropriate gestational age for testing, and the interpretation of the test results are uncertain. Decisions regarding amniocentesis should be tailored to individual clinical circumstances .
We offer amniocentesis to women who have fetal ultrasound findings suggestive of congenital Zika virus syndrome and/or positive or inconclusive maternal laboratory test results for Zika virus infection, when this information will impact decisions about pregnancy termination or ongoing pregnancy and delivery management.
The sensitivity and specificity of Zika virus rRT-PCR testing of amniotic fluid for diagnosis of congenital infection are not known and likely depend on timing of amniocentesis after onset of maternal infection . The sensitivity of amniocentesis for diagnosis of congenital Zika virus infection may be higher at ≥21 weeks than earlier in pregnancy because, by analogy with other causes of congenital infection (such as cytomegalovirus and Toxoplasma), it is likely that Zika virus is not shed into amniotic fluid until sufficient time has elapsed following maternal viremia for the virus to breach the placental barrier; this is likely six to eight weeks after maternal infection [9,73-75]. In addition, fetal kidney development must be sufficiently advanced to excrete the virus into the amniotic fluid (fetal urine production accounts for most of the amniotic fluid volume after 18 to 21 weeks of gestation). However, amniocentesis this late in gestation may not allow adequate time to arrange termination of pregnancy if desired because of positive results. Therefore, if amniocentesis is performed six to eight weeks after maternal infection and false-negative results are suspected, a repeat amniocentesis later in gestation may be considered.
A positive rRT-PCR result on amniotic fluid should be considered suggestive of fetal infection . If the test was performed because of maternal laboratory findings and the fetus appears normal, it is unknown whether a positive amniotic fluid rRT-PCR result is predictive of a subsequent fetal abnormality and, if so, what proportion of infants will have abnormalities.
If the fetus is abnormal and rRT-PCR is negative, evaluation for other causes of the fetal abnormalities should be considered . However, the duration of amniotic fluid PCR positivity is unknown, so a negative rRT-PCR does not definitively exclude fetal Zika virus infection .
Antepartum fetal monitoring (nonstress test, biophysical profile) — Infected fetuses are at risk for stillbirth, which may be related to hydrops fetalis or growth restriction, although the exact mechanism is unknown. If antenatal testing is performed (eg, nonstress test, biophysical profile) and results are abnormal, early delivery may be appropriate depending on the clinical scenario. These tests are described separately. (See "Nonstress test and contraction stress test" and "The fetal biophysical profile".)
The value of umbilical artery Doppler studies for monitoring fetuses with Zika-related growth restriction is unknown. Until more data are available, it is reasonable to monitor growth restricted fetuses with suspected congenital Zika virus infection by umbilical artery Doppler. (See "Fetal growth restriction: Evaluation and management", section on 'Doppler velocimetry'.)
Delivery — Timing and route of delivery are determined according to routine obstetric policies and standards. The appropriate location for delivery should be decided by late third trimester .
Placenta — In women with positive or inconclusive Zika virus testing results, histopathologic examination of the placenta and umbilical cord, with Zika virus immunohistochemical staining on fixed tissue and Zika virus RNA testing (via rRT-PCR) on fixed and frozen tissue, may document fetal infection.
The CDC suggests obtaining at least three full thickness placental samples from middle third of placental disk and at least one from the placental disk margin, a 5 x 12 cm strip of fetal membranes, and at least four 2.5 cm segments of the umbilical cord ; detailed instructions are available online.
Breastfeeding — Transmission of Zika virus through breast milk has not been reported . Although the virus has been detected in breast milk, it has not been cultured successfully from the milk . ACOG and others have recommended that women continue to breastfeed as the potential risk of Zika virus transmission through breast milk is outweighed by the known benefits of breastfeeding [5,23,77-79]. Thus far, no developmental complications have been observed in otherwise healthy children with postnatal Zika virus infection or exposure [47,80].
Breastfeeding women should take the precautions against acquisition of Zika virus infection, as described below. (See 'Prevention' below.)
Evaluation of fetal loss and stillbirth — Fetal tissue testing is warranted for fetal losses in women with history of Zika exposure, together with either symptoms consistent with Zika virus infection during or within two weeks of exposure or findings of fetal microcephaly. In such cases, Zika virus rRT-PCR and histopathologic examination with immunohistochemical staining should be performed on fetal tissues including the umbilical cord and placenta [18,81]. Instructions for collecting appropriate specimens are available online .
Diagnosis of the etiology of fetal loss or stillbirth helps to inform counseling regarding future pregnancy as recurrent congenital Zika infection has not been reported.
NEWBORN EVALUATION AND FOLLOW-UP — (See "Congenital Zika virus infection: Clinical features, evaluation, and management of the neonate".)
PREVENTION — The key to preventing infection is avoiding exposure to the virus. Exposure can occur as a result of a bite from an infected mosquito or sexual transmission from an infected partner (male or female). (See "Zika virus infection: An overview", section on 'Transmission'.)
There is no vaccine for prevention of Zika virus infection, but a vaccine is under development.
A past Zika virus infection is likely to provide protection from future infection. Although there is no evidence that women who have had a past Zika virus infection are at risk of birth defects in future pregnancies, the possibility cannot be definitively excluded .
Guidance for pregnant women — To protect against Zika virus infection, pregnant women should:
●Avoid travel to areas with mosquito transmission of Zika virus – Given an association between Zika virus exposure during pregnancy and congenital microcephaly, pregnant women should avoid or consider postponing travel to areas where mosquito transmission of Zika virus is ongoing, unless the need for travel is essential [17,83-88].
Updates regarding the geographic distribution of Zika virus, including travel restrictions for pregnant women, may be viewed at the United States Centers for Disease Control and Prevention website and the Pan American Health Organization/World Health Organization website. The geographic distribution of Zika virus infection is evolving and discussed further elsewhere. (See "Zika virus infection: An overview", section on 'Geographic distribution'.)
●Adhere to mosquito protective measures – Mosquito protective measures should be used day and night. (See "Zika virus infection: An overview", section on 'Mosquito protection'.)
Use of United States Environmental Protection Agency-approved insect repellants (DEET for skin, permethrin for clothing) in pregnancy has no known harmful effects if used according to directions. (See "Prevention of arthropod and insect bites: Repellents and other measures".)
Employers should consider reassigning women who indicate they are or may become pregnant, or men who have a sexual partner who is or may become pregnant, to indoor work to reduce the risk of mosquito bites [89,90].
●Adhere to measures (abstinence or condoms) to protect against sexual transmission from a partner (male or female) throughout pregnancy – Most sexual transmissions have been from symptomatic Zika virus infections, although sexual transmission from an asymptomatic man has been reported. Risk of sexual transmission (vaginal, oral, anal), including the duration of risk, is reviewed separately. (See "Zika virus infection: An overview", section on 'Sexual transmission'.)
●Adhere to standard infection precautions, especially if the pregnant woman is a health care worker who has exposure to blood, semen, and other potentially infectious materials, including laboratory specimens/samples. (See 'Nosocomial transmission' above.)
In addition, pregnant women and clinicians should be aware that Zika virus is transmissible via blood products and organ or tissue transplantation [91,92]. Issues related to blood component and donor screening are discussed separately. (See "Blood donor screening: Laboratory testing", section on 'Zika virus' and "Blood donor screening: Medical history", section on 'Zika virus'.)
Guidance for couples planning pregnancy
●Couples residing in areas with active Zika virus transmission –Reproductive-age women and men in affected areas should be informed about the risks of transmission of Zika virus, the consequences of Zika virus infection in pregnancy, and consideration of the possibility of delaying pregnancy. Individual decisions to delay pregnancy should consider the local incidence of Zika virus infection, including whether the epidemic has peaked locally .
Those who are attempting to conceive should minimize their risk of exposure to Zika virus, similar to pregnant women (see 'Guidance for pregnant women' above).
Women and men who experience symptoms of Zika virus disease should be tested for Zika virus infection: Men with results that indicate recent Zika virus or unspecified flavivirus infection should wait at least six months from symptom onset before attempting conception with their partner and women with these results should wait at least eight weeks from symptom onset before attempting to conceive .
●Couples not residing in areas with active Zika virus transmission – Couples planning to conceive should avoid or consider postponing travel to areas where mosquito transmission of Zika virus is ongoing, unless the need for travel is essential (refer to United States Centers for Disease Control and Prevention website and the Pan American Health Organization/World Health Organization website for areas where Zika virus transmission has been identified).
If travel is essential, they should take precautions (protection from mosquito bites, use of abstinence/condoms) to avoid exposure to the virus, as described above for pregnant women. (See 'Guidance for pregnant women' above.)
●Couples with potential exposure not residing in areas with active Zika virus transmission – For men who do not live in an area of active Zika virus transmission, the CDC suggests waiting at least six months after a possible exposure via travel to mosquito transmission areas or sexual contact (if asymptomatic) or onset of symptoms of Zika infection (if symptomatic) before attempting conception, and using abstinence or condoms during this period . This recommendation was based on a study that detected Zika virus RNA in semen for as long as 188 days after symptom onset. However, among reported cases of sexually transmitted Zika virus infection, the longest period between symptom onset and sexual contact was shorter, 32 to 41 days. (See "Zika virus infection: An overview", section on 'Transmission'.)
For women who do not live in an area of active Zika virus transmission, the CDC suggests waiting at least eight weeks after last possible Zika virus exposure (if asymptomatic) or after symptom onset (if symptomatic) before attempting to conceive. Zika virus persistence in the female genital tract has been reported for up three weeks after symptom onset, but data are limited [95-97].
The CDC does not recommend routine Zika virus testing for asymptomatic nonpregnant women or men with possible Zika virus exposure who are attempting to conceive . Symptomatic women and men should be tested.
●Couples undergoing infertility treatment – Couples undergoing infertility treatment who require the use of donor sperm or donor egg should only obtain these gametes from laboratories following FDA recommended screening guidelines and excluding donors that have traveled to at-risk areas within six months of donation . Couples undergoing fertility treatment with their own gametes should follow the same testing and timing recommendations described above for fertile couples planning pregnancy .
ONLINE RESOURCES — Online updates regarding Zika virus infection may be viewed at the following websites:
INFORMATION FOR PATIENTS — UpToDate offers two types of patient education materials, "The Basics" and "Beyond the Basics." The Basics patient education pieces are written in plain language, at the 5th to 6th grade reading level, and they answer the four or five key questions a patient might have about a given condition. These articles are best for patients who want a general overview and who prefer short, easy-to-read materials. Beyond the Basics patient education pieces are longer, more sophisticated, and more detailed. These articles are written at the 10th to 12th grade reading level and are best for patients who want in-depth information and are comfortable with some medical jargon.
Here are the patient education articles that are relevant to this topic. We encourage you to print or e-mail these topics to your patients. (You can also locate patient education articles on a variety of subjects by searching on "patient info" and the keyword(s) of interest.)
●Basics topic (see "Patient education: Zika virus infection (The Basics)")
SUMMARY AND RECOMMENDATIONS
●Clinical manifestations of Zika virus infection in pregnant women are the same as those in nonpregnant adults: acute onset of fever, rash, arthralgia, conjunctivitis. (See 'Diagnosis of Zika virus infection in pregnant women' above.)
●Vertical transmission of Zika virus from mother to fetus during pregnancy has been associated with serious sequelae. The greatest risk of serious fetal sequelae is with first-trimester infection. The rate of vertical transmission and the rate at which infected fetuses manifest complications are unknown. (See 'Congenital infection' above.)
●Health care providers should ask pregnant women about relevant past and ongoing epidemiologic exposure as a result of residence, travel, or unprotected sexual contact with a person at risk of infection. (See 'Diagnosis of Zika virus infection in pregnant women' above.)
●In pregnancy, both symptomatic women and asymptomatic women with Zika virus exposure are tested for Zika virus infection. We use the following algorithm (algorithm 1), which describes the United States Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's diagnostic approach. (See 'Diagnosis of Zika virus infection in pregnant women' above.)
●The minimum time between occurrence of maternal Zika virus infection and development of sonographic signs suggestive of fetal infection is not known. In women infected early in pregnancy, ultrasound findings associated with fetal Zika virus infection may be detected as early as 18 to 20 weeks of gestation but are usually detected in the late second and early third trimester of pregnancy. (See 'Fetal ultrasonography' above.)
●A fetal ultrasound examination is performed every three to four weeks to look for signs of congenital Zika virus infection in pregnant women with laboratory evidence of (see 'Candidates and frequency of examination' above):
•Recent Zika virus infection
•Recent flavivirus infection (specific virus cannot be identified)
•Presumptive recent Zika or flavivirus infection
●For women with a possible symptoms or exposure to Zika virus infection, but a negative diagnostic laboratory evaluation >12 weeks from symptom onset or possible exposure, a baseline ultrasound examination should be performed. If the ultrasound examination shows abnormalities consistent with congenital Zika virus syndrome, Zika virus real time reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (rRT-PCR) and immunoglobulin M (IgM) tests are repeated, and clinical management is individualized based on the results of these tests and ultrasound findings. If the ultrasound examination is normal, one or more follow-up ultrasound examinations is reasonable given that Zika virus laboratory test results decline over time and may be negative >12 weeks after an acute infection. (See 'Candidates and frequency of examination' above.)
●For women with a negative diagnostic laboratory evaluation and normal ultrasound examination but ongoing risk of acquiring Zika virus infection (algorithm 1), serial ultrasound examinations every three to four weeks are reasonable, but guidance for monitoring these pregnancies has not been published. (See 'Candidates and frequency of examination' above.)
●We suggest offering amniocentesis to women who have fetal ultrasound findings suggestive of congenital Zika virus syndrome and/or positive or inconclusive maternal laboratory test results for Zika virus infection, when this information will impact decisions about pregnancy termination or ongoing pregnancy and delivery management. Zika virus rRT-PCR in amniotic fluid is diagnostic of fetal viral exposure, but not predictive of outcome. (See 'Prenatal (fetal) diagnosis' above.)
●There is no specific treatment for Zika virus infection, and there is currently no vaccine for prevention. (See 'Prevention' above.)
●To protect against Zika virus infection, pregnant women should (see 'Guidance for pregnant women' above):
•Avoid travel to areas with known mosquito transmission of Zika virus
•Adhere to mosquito protective measures
•Adhere to measures to protect from sexual transmission of Zika virus
•Adhere to recommendations regarding blood donation
•Adhere to recommendations for standard infection precautions
●Transmission through breastfeeding has not been described, but the Zika virus is present in breast milk, so it may be possible. (See 'Breastfeeding' above.)
●Women with Zika virus exposure may breastfeed. Transmission of Zika virus through breastfeeding has not been described, although the virus has been detected in breast milk. (See 'Breastfeeding' above.)
- Driggers RW, Ho CY, Korhonen EM, et al. Zika Virus Infection with Prolonged Maternal Viremia and Fetal Brain Abnormalities. N Engl J Med 2016; 374:2142.
- Update: Interim Guidance for Health Care Providers Caring for Pregnant Women with Possible Zika Virus Exposure — United States, July 2016 http://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/volumes/65/wr/mm6529e1.htm?s_cid=mm6529e1_e (Accessed on July 25, 2016).
- Meaney-Delman D, Oduyebo T, Polen KN, et al. Prolonged Detection of Zika Virus RNA in Pregnant Women. Obstet Gynecol 2016; 128:724.
- http://www.acog.org/About-ACOG/News-Room/Practice-Advisories/Practice-Advisory-Interim-Guidance-for-Care-of-Obstetric-Patients-During-a-Zika-Virus-Outbreak#counseling (Accessed on October 21, 2016).
- http://www.acog.org/About-ACOG/News-Room/Practice-Advisories/Practice-Advisory-Interim-Guidance-for-Care-of-Obstetric-Patients-During-a-Zika-Virus-Outbreak#Figure1 (Accessed on September 15, 2016).
- Miner JJ, Cao B, Govero J, et al. Zika Virus Infection during Pregnancy in Mice Causes Placental Damage and Fetal Demise. Cell 2016; 165:1081.
- Tabata T, Petitt M, Puerta-Guardo H, et al. Zika Virus Targets Different Primary Human Placental Cells, Suggesting Two Routes for Vertical Transmission. Cell Host Microbe 2016; 20:155.
- Cugola FR, Fernandes IR, Russo FB, et al. The Brazilian Zika virus strain causes birth defects in experimental models. Nature 2016; 534:267.
- Vouga M, Baud D. Imaging of congenital Zika virus infection: the route to identification of prognostic factors. Prenat Diagn 2016; 36:799.
- Costello A, Dua T, Duran P, et al. Defining the syndrome associated with congenital Zika virus infection. Bull World Health Organ 2016; 94:406.
- Jurado KA, Simoni MK, Tang Z, et al. Zika virus productively infects primary human placenta-specific macrophages. JCI Insight 2016; 1.
- Adams Waldorf KM, Stencel-Baerenwald JE, Kapur RP, et al. Fetal brain lesions after subcutaneous inoculation of Zika virus in a pregnant nonhuman primate. Nat Med 2016; 22:1256.
- Quicke KM, Bowen JR, Johnson EL, et al. Zika Virus Infects Human Placental Macrophages. Cell Host Microbe 2016; 20:83.
- Brasil P, Pereira JP Jr, Raja Gabaglia C, et al. Zika Virus Infection in Pregnant Women in Rio de Janeiro - Preliminary Report. N Engl J Med 2016.
- European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control. Rapid Risk Assessment: Zika virus disease epidemic: potential association with microcephaly and Guillain–Barré syndrome, fourth update, 9 March 2016. http://ecdc.europa.eu/en/publications/Publications/zika-virus-rapid-risk-assessment-9-march-2016.pdf (Accessed on March 10, 2016).
- Pacheco O, Beltrán M, Nelson CA, et al. Zika Virus Disease in Colombia - Preliminary Report. N Engl J Med 2016.
- Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Emergency Preparedness and Response: Recognizing, Managing, and Reporting Zika Virus Infections in Travelers Returning from Central America, South America, the Caribbean, and Mexico. http://emergency.cdc.gov/han/han00385.asp (Accessed on January 18, 2016).
- Petersen EE, Staples JE, Meaney-Delman D, et al. Interim Guidelines for Pregnant Women During a Zika Virus Outbreak--United States, 2016. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep 2016; 65:30.
- Besnard M, Lastere S, Teissier A, et al. Evidence of perinatal transmission of Zika virus, French Polynesia, December 2013 and February 2014. Euro Surveill 2014; 19.
- Hennessey M, Fischer M, Staples JE. Zika Virus Spreads to New Areas - Region of the Americas, May 2015-January 2016. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep 2016; 65:55.
- Cauchemez S, Besnard M, Bompard P, et al. Association between Zika virus and microcephaly in French Polynesia, 2013-15: a retrospective study. Lancet 2016; 387:2125.
- Ventura CV, Maia M, Travassos SB, et al. Risk Factors Associated With the Ophthalmoscopic Findings Identified in Infants With Presumed Zika Virus Congenital Infection. JAMA Ophthalmol 2016; 134:912.
- The American Congress of Obstetricians and Gynecologists. Practice Advisory: Interim Guidance for Care of Obstetric Patients During a Zika Virus Outbreak. http://www.acog.org/About-ACOG/News-Room/Practice-Advisories/Practice-Advisory-Interim-Guidance-for-Care-of-Obstetric-Patients-During-a-Zika-Virus-Outbreak (Accessed on February 12, 2016).
- Mlakar J, Korva M, Tul N, et al. Zika Virus Associated with Microcephaly. N Engl J Med 2016; 374:951.
- Schuler-Faccini L, Ribeiro EM, Feitosa IM, et al. Possible Association Between Zika Virus Infection and Microcephaly - Brazil, 2015. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep 2016; 65:59.
- Martines RB, Bhatnagar J, Keating MK, et al. Notes from the Field: Evidence of Zika Virus Infection in Brain and Placental Tissues from Two Congenitally Infected Newborns and Two Fetal Losses--Brazil, 2015. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep 2016; 65:159.
- Calvet G, Aguiar RS, Melo AS, et al. Detection and sequencing of Zika virus from amniotic fluid of fetuses with microcephaly in Brazil: a case study. Lancet Infect Dis 2016; 16:653.
- Microcephaly Epidemic Research Group1. Microcephaly in Infants, Pernambuco State, Brazil, 2015. Emerg Infect Dis 2016; 22:1090.
- Sarno M, Sacramento GA, Khouri R, et al. Zika Virus Infection and Stillbirths: A Case of Hydrops Fetalis, Hydranencephaly and Fetal Demise. PLoS Negl Trop Dis 2016; 10:e0004517.
- Hazin AN, Poretti A, Turchi Martelli CM, et al. Computed Tomographic Findings in Microcephaly Associated with Zika Virus. N Engl J Med 2016; 374:2193.
- de Fatima Vasco Aragao M, van der Linden V, Brainer-Lima AM, et al. Clinical features and neuroimaging (CT and MRI) findings in presumed Zika virus related congenital infection and microcephaly: retrospective case series study. BMJ 2016; 353:i1901.
- Rasmussen SA, Jamieson DJ, Honein MA, Petersen LR. Zika Virus and Birth Defects--Reviewing the Evidence for Causality. N Engl J Med 2016; 374:1981.
- World Health Organization. Zika virus and complications: Questions and answers. http://www.who.int/features/qa/zika/en/ (Accessed on April 19, 2016).
- Cordeiro MT, Pena LJ, Brito C, et al. Positive IgM for Zika virus in the cerebrospinal fluid of 30 neonates with microcephaly in Brazil. Lancet 2016.
- Araujo TVB, Rodrigues LC, Ximenes RAA. Association between Zika virus infection and microcephaly in Brazil, January to May, 2016: preliminary report of a case-control study. Lancet Infect Dis 2016.
- Johansson MA, Mier-y-Teran-Romero L, Reefhuis J, et al. Zika and the Risk of Microcephaly. N Engl J Med 2016; 375:1.
- World Health Organization. WHO child growth standards: Length/height-for-age, weight-for-age, weight-for-height and body mass index-for-age: Methods and development. WHO, Geneva 2006. http://www.who.int/childgrowth/publications/technical_report_pub/en/ (Accessed on January 26, 2016).
- Victora CG, Schuler-Faccini L, Matijasevich A, et al. Microcephaly in Brazil: how to interpret reported numbers? Lancet 2016; 387:621.
- World Health Organization. Assessment of infants with microcephaly in the context of Zika virus: Interim guidance, 25 February 2016. http://apps.who.int/iris/bitstream/10665/204475/1/WHO_ZIKV_MOC_16.3_eng.pdf (Accessed on February 25, 2016).
- Villar J, Cheikh Ismail L, Victora CG, et al. International standards for newborn weight, length, and head circumference by gestational age and sex: the Newborn Cross-Sectional Study of the INTERGROWTH-21st Project. Lancet 2014; 384:857.
- Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Congenital Microcephaly Case Definitions. http://www.cdc.gov/zika/public-health-partners/microcephaly-case-definitions.html (Accessed on April 04, 2016).
- Petersen LR, Jamieson DJ, Honein MA. Zika Virus. N Engl J Med 2016; 375:294.
- World Health Organization. Pregnancy management in the context of Zika virus: Interim guidance, 2 March 2016. http://apps.who.int/iris/bitstream/10665/204520/1/WHO_ZIKV_MOC_16.2_eng.pdf (Accessed on March 03, 2016).
- Soares de Oliveira-Szejnfeld P, Levine D, Melo AS, et al. Congenital Brain Abnormalities and Zika Virus: What the Radiologist Can Expect to See Prenatally and Postnatally. Radiology 2016; 281:203.
- Besnard M, Eyrolle-Guignot D, Guillemette-Artur P, et al. Congenital cerebral malformations and dysfunction in fetuses and newborns following the 2013 to 2014 Zika virus epidemic in French Polynesia. Euro Surveill 2016; 21.
- Culjat M, Darling SE, Nerurkar VR, et al. Clinical and Imaging Findings in an Infant With Zika Embryopathy. Clin Infect Dis 2016; 63:805.
- Karwowski MP, Nelson JM, Staples JE, et al. Zika Virus Disease: A CDC Update for Pediatric Health Care Providers. Pediatrics 2016; 137.
- van der Eijk AA, van Genderen PJ, Verdijk RM, et al. Miscarriage Associated with Zika Virus Infection. N Engl J Med 2016; 375:1002.
- Carvalho FH, Cordeiro KM, Peixoto AB, et al. Associated ultrasonographic findings in fetuses with microcephaly because of suspected Zika virus (ZIKV) infection during pregnancy. Prenat Diagn 2016; 36:882.
- Ventura CV, Maia M, Bravo-Filho V, et al. Zika virus in Brazil and macular atrophy in a child with microcephaly. Lancet 2016; 387:228.
- Ventura CV, Maia M, Ventura BV, et al. Ophthalmological findings in infants with microcephaly and presumable intra-uterus Zika virus infection. Arq Bras Oftalmol 2016; 79:1.
- de Paula Freitas B, de Oliveira Dias JR, Prazeres J, et al. Ocular Findings in Infants With Microcephaly Associated With Presumed Zika Virus Congenital Infection in Salvador, Brazil. JAMA Ophthalmol 2016.
- Moshfeghi DM, de Miranda HA 2nd, Costa MC. Zika Virus, Microcephaly, and Ocular Findings. JAMA Ophthalmol 2016; 134:945.
- Miranda-Filho Dde B, Martelli CM, Ximenes RA, et al. Initial Description of the Presumed Congenital Zika Syndrome. Am J Public Health 2016; 106:598.
- Leal MC, Muniz LF, Ferreira TS, et al. Hearing Loss in Infants with Microcephaly and Evidence of Congenital Zika Virus Infection — Brazil, November 2015–May 2016. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep 2016.
- França GV, Schuler-Faccini L, Oliveira WK, et al. Congenital Zika virus syndrome in Brazil: a case series of the first 1501 livebirths with complete investigation. Lancet 2016; 388:891.
- van der Linden V, Filho EL, Lins OG, et al. Congenital Zika syndrome with arthrogryposis: retrospective case series study. BMJ 2016; 354:i3899.
- Martines RB, Bhatnagar J, de Oliveira Ramos AM, et al. Pathology of congenital Zika syndrome in Brazil: a case series. Lancet 2016; 388:898.
- Rosenberg AZ, Yu W, Hill DA, et al. Placental Pathology of Zika Virus: Viral Infection of the Placenta Induces Villous Stromal Macrophage (Hofbauer Cell) Proliferation and Hyperplasia. Arch Pathol Lab Med 2016.
- Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Preventing Transmission of Zika Virus in Labor and Delivery Settings Through Implementation of Standard Precautions — United States, March 22, 2016. http://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/volumes/65/wr/mm6511e3er.htm (Accessed on March 22, 2016).
- Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Zika Virus: Symptoms, Diagnosis, & Treatment. http://www.cdc.gov/zika/symptoms/index.html (Accessed on January 13, 2016).
- World Health Organization. Emergencies preparedness, response: Psychosocial support for pregnant women and for families with microcephaly and other neurological complications in the context of Zika virus: Interim guidance for health-care providers. http://who.int/csr/resources/publications/zika/psychosocial-support/en/ (Accessed on February 29, 2016).
- Oliveira Melo AS, Malinger G, Ximenes R, et al. Zika virus intrauterine infection causes fetal brain abnormality and microcephaly: tip of the iceberg? Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol 2016; 47:6.
- Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Questions and Answers for Obstetrical Healthcare Providers: Pregnant Women and Zika Virus Infection. http://www.cdc.gov/zika/hc-providers/qa-pregnant-women.html (Accessed on February 02, 2016).
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- Papageorghiou AT, Thilaganathan B, Bilardo CM, et al. ISUOG Interim Guidance on ultrasound for Zika virus infection in pregnancy: information for healthcare professionals. Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol 2016; 47:530.
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- Society for Maternal-Fetal Medicine (SMFM) Publications Committee. Ultrasound screening for fetal microcephaly following Zika virus exposure. Am J Obstet Gynecol 2016; 214:B2.
- Guillemette-Artur P, Besnard M, Eyrolle-Guignot D, et al. Prenatal brain MRI of fetuses with Zika virus infection. Pediatr Radiol 2016; 46:1032.
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- Vouga M, Musso D, Van Mieghem T, Baud D. CDC guidelines for pregnant women during the Zika virus outbreak. Lancet 2016; 387:843.
- ZIKA VIRUS: COLLECTION AND SUBMISSION OF SPECIMENS FOR ZIKA VIRUS TESTING AT TIME OF BIRTH http://www.cdc.gov/zika/pdfs/collection-submission-specimens-zika-testing-at-birth.pdf (Accessed on August 26, 2016).
- Fleming-Dutra KE, Nelson JM, Fischer M, et al. Update: Interim Guidelines for Health Care Providers Caring for Infants and Children with Possible Zika Virus Infection--United States, February 2016. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep 2016; 65:182.
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- World Health Organization. Breastfeeding in the context of Zika virus: Interim guidance, 25 February 2016. http://apps.who.int/iris/bitstream/10665/204473/1/WHO_ZIKV_MOC_16.5_eng.pdf?ua=1 (Accessed on February 25, 2016).
- Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Question and Answers: Zika virus infection (Zika) and pregnancy. http://www.cdc.gov/zika/pregnancy/question-answers.html (Accessed on February 05, 2016).
- Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Zika Virus: Collection and Submission of Fetal Tissues for Zika Virus Testing. http://www.cdc.gov/zika/hc-providers/tissue-collection-submission.html (Accessed on February 16, 2016).
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- US Food and Drug Administration. Donor screening recommendations to reduce the rsk of transmission of Zika virus by human cells, tissues, and cellular and tissue-based products. March 2016. : http://www.fda.gov/downloads/BiologicsBloodVaccines/GuidanceComplianceRegulatoryInformation/Guidances/Tissue/UCM488582.pdf (Accessed on November 02, 2016).