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Medline ® Abstracts for References 1-5

of 'Zika virus infection: An overview'

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Zika Virus.
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Petersen LR, Jamieson DJ, Powers AM, Honein MA
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N Engl J Med. 2016;374(16):1552. Epub 2016 Mar 30.
 
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From the Division of Vector-Borne Diseases, National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Fort Collins, CO (L.R.P., A.M.P.); and the Division of Reproductive Health, National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (D.J.J), and the Division of Congenital and Developmental Disorders, National Center on Birth Defects and Developmental Disabilities (M.A.H), Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta.
PMID
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Zika Virus.
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Musso D, Gubler DJ
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Clin Microbiol Rev. 2016;29(3):487.
 
Zika virus (ZIKV) is an arthropod-borne virus (arbovirus) in the genus Flavivirus and the family Flaviviridae. ZIKV was first isolated from a nonhuman primate in 1947 and from mosquitoes in 1948 in Africa, and ZIKV infections in humans were sporadic for half a century before emerging in the Pacific and the Americas. ZIKV is usually transmitted by the bite of infected mosquitoes. The clinical presentation of Zika fever is nonspecific and can be misdiagnosed as other infectious diseases, especially those due to arboviruses such as dengue and chikungunya. ZIKV infection was associated with only mild illness prior to the large French Polynesian outbreak in 2013 and 2014, when severe neurological complications were reported, and the emergence in Brazil of a dramatic increase in severe congenital malformations (microcephaly) suspected to be associated with ZIKV. Laboratory diagnosis of Zika fever relies on virus isolation or detection of ZIKV-specific RNA. Serological diagnosis is complicated by cross-reactivity among members of the Flavivirus genus. The adaptation of ZIKV to an urban cycle involving humans and domestic mosquito vectors in tropical areas where dengue is endemic suggests that the incidence of ZIKV infections may be underestimated. There is a high potential for ZIKV emergence in urban centers in the tropics that are infested with competent mosquito vectors such as Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus.
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Unit of Emerging Infectious Diseases, Institut Louis Malardé, Tahiti, French Polynesia dmusso@ilm.pf duane.gubler@duke-nus.edu.sg.
PMID
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The Emergence of Zika Virus: A Narrative Review.
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Anderson KB, Thomas SJ, Endy TP
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Ann Intern Med. 2016;165(3):175. Epub 2016 May 3.
 
Zika virus (ZIKV) is yet another arbovirus that is rapidly emerging on a global scale, on the heels of a chikungunya epidemic in the Americas that began in 2013. A ZIKV epidemic that began in Brazil in 2015 has now spread rapidly to more than 30 countries in the Americas and the Caribbean, infecting more than 2 million inhabitants. This epidemic currently continues unabated. The explosive nature of recent outbreaks and concerning links to Guillain-Barrésyndrome and microcephaly are incompletely understood. Also unknown is the relative importance of sexual transmission of ZIKV and asymptomatic ZIKV infections to the overall burden of transmission. The limited understanding of ZIKV presents an enormous challenge for responses to this rapidly emerging threat to human health. This article reviews the existing literature on ZIKV and proposes critical questions for vaccine development and other areas of needed research.
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PMID
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Zika Virus: Implications for Public Health.
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Focosi D, Maggi F, Pistello M
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Clin Infect Dis. 2016 Jul;63(2):227-33. Epub 2016 Apr 5.
 
The World Health Organization has declared the current Zika virus (ZIKV) epidemic a public health emergency of international concern. Lack of vaccines and reliable diagnostic tests, broad geographical distribution of mosquito species that can transmit the virus, and absence of population immunity in newly affected countries are causes for concern. Although most infected persons are asymptomatic, ZIKV has been associated with a rise in cases of neurological complications and fetal central nervous system malformations. This defines such an arbovirus as something whose transmission should be prevented. This review summarizes the current understanding of ZIKV biology and epidemiology, as well as possible interventions to prevent contagion and transmission.
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North-Western Tuscany Blood Bank.
PMID
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An update on Zika virus infection.
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Baud D, Gubler DJ, Schaub B, Lanteri MC, Musso D
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Lancet. 2017;390(10107):2099. Epub 2017 Jun 21.
 
The epidemic history of Zika virus began in 2007, with its emergence in Yap Island in the western Pacific, followed in 2013-14 by a larger epidemic in French Polynesia, south Pacific, where the first severe complications and non-vector-borne transmission of the virus were reported. Zika virus emerged in Brazil in 2015 and was declared a national public health emergency after local researchers and physicians reported an increase in microcephaly cases. In 2016, WHO declared the recent cluster of microcephaly cases and other neurological disorders reported in Brazil a global public health emergency. Similar clusters of microcephaly cases were also observed retrospectively in French Polynesia in 2014. In 2015-16, Zika virus continued its spread to cause outbreaks in the Americas and the Pacific, and the first outbreaks were reported in continental USA, Africa, and southeast Asia. Non-vector-borne transmission was confirmed and Zika virus was established as a cause of severe neurological complications in fetuses, neonates, and adults. This Review focuses on important updates and gaps in the knowledge of Zika virus as of early 2017.
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Materno-fetal and Obstetrics Research Unit, Obstetric Service, Department "Femme-Mère-Enfant", University Hospital, Lausanne, Switzerland. Electronic address: david.baud@chuv.ch.
PMID