Medline ® Abstract for Reference 49
Fludarabine, melphalan, and alemtuzumab conditioning in adults with standard-risk advanced acute myeloid leukemia and myelodysplastic syndrome.
van Besien K, Artz A, Smith S, Cao D, Rich S, Godley L, Jones D, Del Cerro P, Bennett D, Casey B, Odenike O, Thirman M, Daugherty C, Wickrema A, Zimmerman T, Larson RA, Stock W
J Clin Oncol. 2005;23(24):5728. Epub 2005 Jul 11.
PURPOSE: This prospective phase II study evaluated toxicity, relapse rate, progression-free survival, and overall survival after allogeneic transplantation and conditioning with fludarabine, melphalan, and alemtuzumab in patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML) and myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS).
PATIENTS AND METHODS: Fifty-two consecutive adults with AML and MDS were enrolled onto the study. Median age was 52 years (range, 17 to 71 years) and the majority of patients had high-risk disease, comorbidities, and/or modest reduction in performance status. Fifty-six percent of patients had unrelated or mismatched related donors.
RESULTS: After a median follow-up of 18 months (range, 2 to 34 months), 1-year survival was 48% (95% CI, 34% to 61%), progression-free survival was 38% (95% CI, 25% to 52%), relapse rate was 27% (95% CI, 15% to 40%), and treatment-related mortality was 33% (95% CI, 20% to 46%). The cumulative probability of extensive chronic graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) was only 18% (95% CI, 8% to 40%); extensive chronic GVHD was only observed in recipients of unrelated donor transplants. Performance score and disease status were the major predictors of outcome. High-risk disease (ie, active AML or MDS with>5% blasts) or even modest decreases in performance status were associated with poor outcomes. Patients with standard-risk leukemia (first or second complete remission) or MDS (<5% blasts) had excellent outcomes despite unfavorable disease characteristics.
CONCLUSION: Fludarabine and melphalan combined with in vivo alemtuzumab is a promising transplantation regimen for patients with AML or MDS and low tumor burden. For patients with active disease, this regimen provides at best modest palliation. Despite a low incidence of GVHD, transplantation is still associated with considerable nonrelapse mortality in patients with decreased performance status.
Section of Hematology/Oncology, Department of Health Studies, University of Chicago, IL, USA. Kvbesien@uchicago.edu