Medline ® Abstract for Reference 40
The combined effect of total body irradiation (TBI) and cyclosporin A (CyA) on the risk of relapse in patients with acute myeloid leukaemia undergoing allogeneic bone marrow transplantation.
Bacigalupo A, Vitale V, CorvòR, Barra S, Lamparelli T, Gualandi F, Mordini N, Berisso G, Bregante S, Raiola AM, Van Lint MT, Frassoni F
Br J Haematol. 2000;108(1):99.
One hundred and fifty acute myeloid leukaemia (AML) patients in first remission received an allogeneic bone marrow transplant (BMT), after conditioning with cyclophosphamide 120 mg/kg and total body irradiation (TBI) 3.3 Gy x 3 (total nominal dose 9.9). The received dose, as recorded by thermoluminescent dosimeters, ranged between 7. 83 and 12.25 Gy. Patients who received TBI<9.9 Gy (n = 34) had a significantly higher relapse rate when compared with patients receiving>/= 9.9 Gy (n = 116) (43% vs. 19%; P = 0.002). Graft versus host disease (GvHD) prophylaxis consisted of cyclosporin A (CyA) with or without methotrexate (MTX). The dose of CyA was either 1 or 5 mg/kg/day i.v. from day -1 to + 20, then 10 mg/kg/day orally until day + 365. Patients receiving 5 mg/kg CyA (n = 40) had a higher risk of relapse (49% vs. 15%; P = 0.0001). Thus, low-dose TBI (<9.9 Gy) and high-dose CyA (5 mg/kg) were significant predictors of leukaemia relapse. Patients were then divided into three groups: those who had both negative predictors (<9.9 Gy TBI and 5 mg/kg CyA; n = 26); those who had only one (either<9.9 Gy TBI or 5 mg/kg CyA; n = 22); and those who had neither (>/= 9.9 Gy TBI and 1 mg/kg CyA; n = 102). The three groups were comparable for FAB subtype, interval diagnosis transplant and age. The 5-year actuarial relapse rate for these three groups of patients was 49%, 41% and 15%, with no difference between the first two and a significant difference when compared with the latter (P<0.01). These data indicate that acute myeloid leukaemia can be cured with allogeneic bone marrow transplantation given an intensive conditioning regimen and low-dose immunosuppression post-graft. Either alone is insufficient to produce long-term disease-free survival. These results may be relevant for programmes of reduced intensity conditioning designed for patients with acute leukaemia.
Divisione Ematologia II Ospedale San Martino and Istituto Scientifico Tumori, Servizio Radioterapia Genoa, Italy.