Medline ® Abstracts for References 59-62
A multi-institutional phase II trial of preoperative full-dose gemcitabine and concurrent radiation for patients with potentially resectable pancreatic carcinoma.
Talamonti MS, Small W Jr, Mulcahy MF, Wayne JD, Attaluri V, Colletti LM, Zalupski MM, Hoffman JP, Freedman GM, Kinsella TJ, Philip PA, McGinn CJ
Ann Surg Oncol. 2006;13(2):150. Epub 2006 Jan 19.
BACKGROUND: We report the results of a multi-institutional phase II trial that used preoperative full-dose gemcitabine and radiotherapy for patients with potentially resectable pancreatic carcinoma.
METHODS: Patients were treated before surgery with three cycles of full-dose gemcitabine (1000 mg/m2 intravenously), with radiation during the second cycle (36 Gy in daily 2.4-Gy fractions). Patients underwent surgery 4 to 6 weeks after the last gemcitabine infusion.
RESULTS: There were 10 men and 10 women, with a median age of 58 years (range, 50-80 years). Nineteen patients (95%) completed therapy without interruption, and one experienced grade 3 gastrointestinal toxicity. The mean weight loss after therapy was 4.0%. Of 20 patients taken to surgery, 17 (85%) underwent resections (16 pancreaticoduodenectomies and 1 distal pancreatectomy). The complication rate was 24%, with an average length of stay of 13.5 days. There were no operative deaths. Pathologic analysis revealed clear margins in 16 (94%) of 17 and uninvolved lymph nodes in 11 (65%) of 17 specimens. One specimen contained no residual tumor, and three specimens revealed only microscopic foci of residual disease. With a median follow-up of 18 months, 7 (41%) of the 17 patients with resected disease are alive with no recurrence, 3 (18%) are alive with distant metastases, and 7 (41%) have died.
CONCLUSIONS: Preoperative gemcitabine/radiotherapy is well tolerated and safe when delivered in a multi-institutional setting. This protocol had a high rate of subsequent resection, with acceptable morbidity. The high rate of negative margins and uninvolved nodes suggests a significant tumor response. Preliminary survival data are encouraging. This regimen should be considered in future neoadjuvant trials for pancreatic cancer.
Division of Surgical Oncology, Feinberg School of Medicine, Northwestern University, 201 E. Huron, Galter 10-105, Chicago, Illinois 60611, USA. email@example.com
Preoperative gemcitabine-based chemoradiation for patients with resectable adenocarcinoma of the pancreatic head.
Evans DB, Varadhachary GR, Crane CH, Sun CC, Lee JE, Pisters PW, Vauthey JN, Wang H, Cleary KR, Staerkel GA, Charnsangavej C, Lano EA, Ho L, Lenzi R, Abbruzzese JL, Wolff RA
J Clin Oncol. 2008;26(21):3496.
PURPOSE: We conducted a phase II trial to assess the outcomes of patients who received preoperative gemcitabine-based chemoradiation and pancreaticoduodenectomy (PD) for stage I/II pancreatic adenocarcinoma.
PATIENTS AND METHODS: Eligible patients with pancreatic head/uncinate process adenocarcinoma and radiographically defined potentially resectable disease received chemoradiation with 7 weekly intravenous (IV) infusions of gemcitabine (400 mg/m(2) IV over 30 minutes) plus radiation therapy (30 Gy in 10 fractions over 2 weeks). Patients underwent restaging 4 to 6 weeks after completion of chemoradiation and, in the absence of disease progression, were taken to surgery.
RESULTS: The study enrolled 86 patients. At the time of restaging, disease progression or a decline in performance status precluded 13 patients from surgery. Seventy-three (85%) of 86 patients were taken to surgery, extrapancreatic disease was found in nine, and 64 (74%) of 86 underwent asuccessful PD. Median overall survival (86 patients) was 22.7 months with a 27% 5-year survival. Median survival was 34 months for the 64 patients who underwent PD and 7 months for the 22 unresected patients (P<.001). The 5-year survival for those who did and did not undergo PD was 36% and 0%, respectively.
CONCLUSION: Preoperative gemcitabine-based chemoradiation followed by restaging and evaluation for surgery separated the study population into two different subsets: patients likely to benefit from PD (n = 64) and those in whom surgery would be unlikely to provide clinical benefit (n = 22). Furthermore, the encouraging overall survival observed in this large trial supports the continued investigation of gemcitabine-based preoperative therapy in resectable pancreatic cancer.
Department of Surgical Oncology, The University of Texas M.D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX 77030, USA. firstname.lastname@example.org
Preoperative gemcitabine and cisplatin followed by gemcitabine-based chemoradiation for resectable adenocarcinoma of the pancreatic head.
Varadhachary GR, Wolff RA, Crane CH, Sun CC, Lee JE, Pisters PW, Vauthey JN, Abdalla E, Wang H, Staerkel GA, Lee JH, Ross WA, Tamm EP, Bhosale PR, Krishnan S, Das P, Ho L, Xiong H, Abbruzzese JL, Evans DB
J Clin Oncol. 2008;26(21):3487.
PURPOSE: We conducted a phase II trial of preoperative gemcitabine and cisplatin chemotherapy in addition to chemoradiation (Gem-Cis-XRT) and pancreaticoduodenectomy (PD) for patients with stage I/II pancreatic adenocarcinoma.
PATIENTS AND METHODS: Chemotherapy consisted of gemcitabine (750 mg/m(2)) and cisplatin (30 mg/m(2)) given every 2 weeks for four doses. Chemoradiation consisted of four weekly infusions of gemcitabine (400 mg/m(2)) combined with radiation therapy (30 Gy in 10 fractions administered over 2 weeks) delivered 5 days per week. Patients underwent restaging 4 to 6 weeks after completion of chemoradiation and, in the absence of disease progression, were taken to surgery.
RESULTS: The study enrolled 90 patients; 79 patients (88%) completed chemo-chemoradiation. Sixty-two (78%) of 79 patients were taken to surgery and 52 (66%) of 79 underwent PD. The median overall survival of all 90 patients was 17.4 months. Median survival for the 79 patients who completed chemo-chemoradiation was 18.7 months, with a median survival of 31 months for the 52 patients who underwent PD and 10.5 months for the 27 patients who did not undergo surgical resection of their primary tumor (P<.001).
CONCLUSION: Preoperative Gem-Cis-XRT did not improve survival beyond that achieved with preoperative gemcitabine-based chemoradiation (Gem-XRT) alone. The longer preoperative interval required more durable biliary decompression (metal stents) but was not associated with local tumor progression. The gemcitabine-based chemoradiation platform is a reasonable foundation on which to build future phase II multimodality trials for stage I/II pancreatic cancer incorporating emerging systemic therapies.
Department of Gastrointestinal Medical Oncology, The University of Texas M.D. Anderson Cancer Center, 1515 Holcombe Blvd, Box 426, Houston, TX 77030, USA. email@example.com
A single-arm, nonrandomized phase II trial of neoadjuvant gemcitabine and oxaliplatin in patients with resectable pancreas adenocarcinoma.
OʼReilly EM, Perelshteyn A, Jarnagin WR, Schattner M, Gerdes H, Capanu M, Tang LH, LaValle J, Winston C, DeMatteo RP, DʼAngelica M, Kurtz RC, Abou-Alfa GK, Klimstra DS, Lowery MA, Brennan MF, Coit DG, Reidy DL, Kingham TP, Allen PJ
Ann Surg. 2014 Jul;260(1):142-8.
BACKGROUND: The role for neoadjuvant systemic therapy in resectable pancreas adenocarcinoma remains undefined.
OBJECTIVE: We evaluated the efficacy of gemcitabine and oxaliplatin administered as preoperative therapy in patients with resectable pancreas adenocarcinoma.
METHODS: Eligible patients were screened using computed tomography-pancreas angiography, laparoscopy, endoscopic ultrasonography, and fine-needle aspiration cytology to identify 38 patients who received 4 cycles of neoadjuvant gemcitabine 1000 mg/m intravenously over 100 minutes and oxaliplatin 80 mg/m intravenously over 2 hours, every 2 weeks. Patients whose tumors remained resectable at restaging proceeded to operation and subsequently received 5 cycles of adjuvant gemcitabine (1000 mg/m intravenously over 30 minutes days 1, 8, and 15 every 4 weeks). The primary endpoint was 18-month overall survival and secondary endpoints included radiological, tumor marker and pathological response to neoadjuvant therapy, time to recurrence, patterns of failure, and feasibility of obtaining preoperative core biopsies.
RESULTS: Thirty-five of 38 patients (92%) completed neoadjuvant therapy. Twenty-seven patients underwent tumor resection (resectability rate 71%), of which 26 initiated adjuvant therapy for a total of 23 patients (60.5%) who completed all planned therapy. The 18-month survival was 63% (24 patients alive). The median overall survival for all 38 patients was 27.2 months (95% confidence interval: 17-NA) and the median disease-specific survival was 30.6 months (95% confidence interval: 19-NA).
CONCLUSIONS: This study met its endpoint and provided a signal suggesting that exploration of neoadjuvant systemic therapy is worthy of further investigation in resectable pancreas adenocarcinoma. Improved patient selection and more active systemic regimens are key. Clinical trials identification: NCT00536874.
*Gastrointestinal Oncology Service†Department of Medicine‡Hepatopancreaticobiliary Surgery Service§Gastroenterology and Nutrition Service Departments of¶Epidemiology and Biostatistics‖Pathology **Radiology††Surgery; and‡‡Gastric and Mixed Tumor Service, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, NY.