Medline ® Abstracts for References 24,36-38
Adjuvant chemoradiation for pancreatic adenocarcinoma: the Johns Hopkins Hospital-Mayo Clinic collaborative study.
Hsu CC, Herman JM, Corsini MM, Winter JM, Callister MD, Haddock MG, Cameron JL, Pawlik TM, Schulick RD, Wolfgang CL, Laheru DA, Farnell MB, Swartz MJ, Gunderson LL, Miller RC
Ann Surg Oncol. 2010;17(4):981. Epub 2010 Jan 20.
BACKGROUND: Survival for pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma is low, the role of adjuvant therapy remains controversial, and recent data suggest adjuvant chemoradiation (CRT) may decrease survival compared with surgery alone. Our goal was to examine efficacy of adjuvant CRT in resected pancreatic adenocarcinoma compared with surgery alone.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: Patients with pancreatic adenocarcinoma at Johns Hopkins Hospital (n = 794, 1993-2005) and Mayo Clinic (n = 478, 1985-2005) following resection who were observed (n = 509) or received adjuvant 5-FU based CRT (median dose 50.4 Gy; n = 583) were included. Cox survival and propensity score analyses assessed associations with overall survival. Matched-pair analysis by treatment group (1:1) based on institution, age, sex, tumor size/stage, differentiation, margin, and node positivity with N = 496 (n = 248 per treatment arm) was performed.
RESULTS: Median survival was 18.8 months. Overall survival (OS) was longer among recipients of CRT versus surgery alone (median survival 21.1 vs. 15.5 months, P<.001; 2- and 5-year OS 44.7 vs. 34.6%; 22.3 vs. 16.1%, P<.001). Compared with surgery alone, adjuvant CRT improved survival in propensity score analysis for all patients by 33% (P<.001), with improved survival when stratified by age, margin, node, and T-stage (RR = 0.57-0.75, P<.05). Matched-pair analysis demonstrated OS was longer with CRT (21.9 vs. 14.3 months median survival; 2- and 5-year OS 45.5 vs. 31.4%; 25.4 vs. 12.2%, P<.001).
CONCLUSIONS: Adjuvant CRT is associated with improved survival after pancreaticoduodenectomy. Adjuvant CRT was not associated with decreased survival in any risk group, even in propensity score and matched-pair analyses. Further studies evaluating adjuvant chemotherapy compared with adjuvant chemoradiation are needed to determine the most effective combination of systemic and local-regional therapy to achieve optimal survival results.
Department of Radiation Oncology and Molecular Radiation Sciences, Johns Hopkins Hospital, Baltimore, MD, USA.
Impact of adjuvant radiotherapy on survival after pancreatic cancer resection: an appraisal of data from the national cancer data base.
Kooby DA, Gillespie TW, Liu Y, Byrd-Sellers J, Landry J, Bian J, Lipscomb J
Ann Surg Oncol. 2013 Oct;20(11):3634-42. Epub 2013 Jun 15.
PURPOSE: The impact of adjuvant radiotherapy for pancreatic adenocarcinoma (PAC) remains controversial. We examined effects of adjuvant therapy on overall survival (OS) in PAC, using the National Cancer Data Base (NCDB).
METHODS: Patients with resected PAC from 1998 to 2002 were queried from the NCDB. Factors associated with receipt of adjuvant chemotherapy (ChemoOnly) versus adjuvant chemoradiotherapy (ChemoRad) versus no adjuvant treatment (NoAdjuvant) were assessed. Cox proportional hazard modeling was used to examine effect of adjuvant therapy type on OS. Propensity scores (PS) were developed for each treatment arm and used to produce matched samples for analysis to minimize selection bias.
RESULTS: From 1998 to 2002, a total of 11,526 patients underwent resection of PAC. Of these, 1,029 (8.9 %) received ChemoOnly, 5,292 (45.9 %) received ChemoRad, and 5,205 (45.2 %) received NoAdjuvant. On univariate analysis, factors associated with improved OS included: younger age, higher income, higher facility volume, lower tumorstage and grade, negative margins and nodes, and absence of adjuvant therapy. On multivariate analysis with matched PS, factors independently associated with improved OS included: younger age, higher income, higher facility volume, later year of diagnosis, smaller tumor size, lower tumor stage, and negative tumor margins and nodes. ChemoRad had the best OS (hazard ratio 0.70, 95 % confidence interval 0.61-0.80) in a PS matched comparison with ChemoOnly (hazard ratio 1.04, 95 % confidence interval 0.93-1.18) and NoAdjuvant (index).
CONCLUSIONS: Adjuvant chemotherapy with radiotherapy is associated with improved OS after PAC resection in a large population from the NCDB. On the basis of these analyses, radiotherapy should be a part of adjuvant therapy for PAC.
Department of Surgery, Emory University School of Medicine, Atlanta, GA, USA. email@example.com
Effect of adjuvant radiotherapy on survival in resected pancreatic cancer: a propensity score surveillance, epidemiology, and end results database analysis.
Sugawara A, Kunieda E
J Surg Oncol. 2014;110(8):960.
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: The role of adjuvant radiotherapy for resected pancreatic cancer remains controversial. The aim is to demonstrate a survival benefit of adjuvant radiotherapy for resected pancreatic cancer.
METHODS: The Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results database was used to identify patients who were diagnosed with adenocarcinoma of the pancreas from 2004 to 2009, underwent cancer-directed surgery, and received either no radiotherapy or postoperative radiotherapy. Kaplan-Meier and multivariable Cox proportional hazards analyses using a propensity score matching were conducted to determine the effect of adjuvant radiotherapy on overall and disease-specific survival.
RESULTS: A total of 2,532 patients were included. The median overall and disease-specific survival were significantly longer in the adjuvant radiotherapy group than in no radiotherapy group (overall survival, 20 months vs. 16 months, respectively; disease-specific survival, 22 months vs. 18 months, respectively; both P < 0.0001). In multivariable Cox proportional analyses, adjuvant radiotherapy was associated with a significant overall and disease-specific survival benefit (both P < 0.001).
CONCLUSIONS: There is a survival benefit of adjuvant radiotherapy in patients with resected pancreatic cancer. We concluded that adjuvant radiotherapy might be included in the standard treatment for resected pancreatic cancer.
Department of Radiation Oncology, Tokai University Hachioji Hospital, Hachioji, Japan.
Addition of radiotherapy to adjuvant chemotherapy is associated with improved overall survival in resected pancreatic adenocarcinoma: An analysis of the National Cancer Data Base.
Rutter CE, Park HS, Corso CD, Lester-Coll NH, Mancini BR, Yeboa DN, Johung KL
Cancer. 2015 Dec;121(23):4141-9. Epub 2015 Aug 17.
BACKGROUND: The optimal treatment for resected pancreatic cancer is controversial because direct comparisons of adjuvant chemotherapy (CT) alone and chemotherapy and radiotherapy (CRT) are limited. This study assessed outcomes of CT versus CRT in a national cohort to provide a modern estimate of comparative effectiveness.
METHODS: Patients with pT1-3N0-1M0 pancreatic adenocarcinoma after pancreatectomy were identified in the National Cancer Data Base. Overall survival (OS) was compared for CT and CRT groups with Cox regression and propensity score matching. Subset analyses by clinicopathologic characteristics were performed.
RESULTS: This study identified 6165 patients treated with CT (n = 2334 or 38%) or CRT (n = 3831 or 62%). Most were classified as pT3 (72%), pN1 (67%), and status-post R0 resection (84%). For CRT patients, the median radiotherapy dose was 50.4 Gy. Compared with CT, CRT was associated with improved OS in a univariate analysis (median, 20.0 vs 22.3 months; at 5 years,16.5% vs 19.6%; P < .001) and a multivariate analysis (hazard ratio [HR], 0.893; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.837-0.953; P = .001). CRT remained associated with improved OS after propensity score matching (HR, 0.851; 95% CI, 0.793-0.913; P < .001). Subset analyses showed that CRT was associated with improved OS among patients with pT3 (HR, 0.892; 95% CI, 0.828-0.962; P = .003) or pN1 disease (HR, 0.856; 95% CI, 0.793-0.924; P < .001) and both R0 resection (HR, 0.901; 95% CI, 0.839-0.969; P = .005) and R1 resection (HR, 0.842; 95% CI, 0.722-0.983; P = .030).
CONCLUSIONS: CRT was independently associated with improved OS after the resection of pancreatic adenocarcinoma in a large national cohort and particularly among patients with R1 resection and pN1 disease. Well-designed randomized comparisons of CRT and CT are urgently needed. Cancer 2015;121:4141-4149.©2015 American Cancer Society.
Department of Therapeutic Radiology, Yale School of Medicine, New Haven, Connecticut.