Medline ® Abstract for Reference 4
Biomarkers for prediction of venous thromboembolism in cancer.
Pabinger I, Thaler J, Ay C
Blood. 2013;122(12):2011. Epub 2013 Aug 1.
Cancer patients are at increased risk of deep vein thrombosis and pulmonary embolism. The incidence among different groups of cancer patients varies considerably depending on clinical factors, the most important being tumor entity and stage. Biomarkers have been specifically investigated for their capacity of predicting venous thromboembolism (VTE) during the course of disease. Parameters of blood count analysis (elevated leukocyte and platelet count and decreased hemoglobin) have turned out to be useful in risk prediction. Associations between elevated levels and future VTE have been found for d-dimer, prothrombin fragment 1+2, and soluble P-selectin and also for clotting factor VIII and the thrombin generation potential. The results for tissue factor-bearing microparticles are heterogeneous: an association with occurrence of VTE in pancreatic cancer might be present, whereas in other cancer entities, such as glioblastoma, colorectal, or gastric carcinoma, this could not be confirmed. Risk assessment models were developed that include clinical and laboratory markers. In the high-risk categories, patient groups with up to a>20% VTE rate within 6 months can be identified. A further improvement in risk stratification would allow better identification of patients for primary VTE prevention using indirect or novel direct anticoagulants.
Clinical Division of Haematology and Haemostaseology, Department of Medicine I, Medical University of Vienna, Vienna, Austria.