Medline ® Abstract for Reference 14
Caval tumor thrombus complicating renal cell carcinoma: a surgical challenge.
Hedderich GS, O'Connor RJ, Reid EC, Mulder DS
The surgical challenge of resection of renal cell carcinoma with vena caval invasion may require close cooperation between the urologist and cardiovascular surgeon. From 1977 to 1986, 13 patients with renal cell carcinoma and tumor thrombus invading the inferior vena cava (IVC) underwent radical surgical resection. In three of 13 patients the thrombus extended into the heart (right atrium two patients and right ventricle one patient). The tumor originated in the right kidney in 10 patients and in the left kidney in three patients. There were 10 men and three women with a mean age of 64 years (range, 46 to 75 years). Surgical management included midline incision, seven, with median sternotomy, four, and thoracoabdominal, two. After exposure of the renal vessels and IVC, all patients underwent radical nephrectomy. Two patients had caval sleeve resection, one had a partial caval resection, and seven had a 1 cm caval cuff. Planned cardiopulmonary bypass was used in three patients. The tumor thrombus was extracted by simultaneous atrial and caval approaches. One patient underwent unplanned emergency cardiopulmonary bypass after intraoperative cardiac arrest caused by a large tumor embolus of the pulmonary artery. No operative deaths occurred. Postoperative morbidity was significant in five of 13 patients, caval thrombosis in one, lower limb swelling in two, renal failure in one, and pulmonary edema in one patient. Two patients required long-term anticoagulation therapy for confirmed pulmonary emboli within 1 month of surgery. These complications resolved. The follow-up period ranged from 7 to 64 months with a mean of 36 months. Two patients died of metastatic disease at 24 and 48 months after surgery. Three patients are alive with metastatic disease at 6 to 64 months while one patient had a solitary metastatic lesion removed from the frontal lobe 4 years after nephrectomy and has been disease free a subsequent 18 months. Eight of 11 patients are disease free at 7 to 64 months (four patients greater than 52 months). Our 83% survival rate at a mean follow-up of 36 months suggests that this group of patients should not be denied aggressive resection. Documentation of tumor source and caval extension are essential to plan operative procedures, including use of cardiopulmonary bypass.
Department of Cardiovascular Surgery, Montreal General Hospital, Quebec, Canada.