Medline ® Abstract for Reference 30
Large Granular Lymphocyte Leukemia.
Lamy T, Loughran TP
Cancer Control. 1998;5(1):25.
BACKGROUND: Clonal diseases of large granular lymphocyte (LGL) disorders can arise from a CD3+ T-cell lineage or from a CD3- NK-cell lineage. CD3+ LGL leukemia is the most frequent form of LGL leukemia and is a distinct entity by FAB and REAL classifications. METHODS: The clinical course, biological features, and recent data on pathogenesis of CD3+ LGL leukemia are reviewed. The spectrum of differential diagnosis is described. RESULTS: T-LGL leukemia affects elderly people. Approximately 60% of patients are symptomatic; recurrent infections secondary to chronic neutropenia, anemia, and rheumatoid arthritis are the main clinical features. The most common phenotype is CD3+, CD8+, CD57+. Clonality is detected by clonal rearrangement of the T-cell receptor gene. Clinical and molecular remission can be obtained with oral low-dose methotrexate. Serologic findings show frequent reactivity to the BA21 epitope of HTLV-I env p21e, suggesting that a cellular or retroviral protein with homology to BA21 may be important in pathogenesis. Clonal expansion may be facilitated by IL-12 and IL-15 lymphokines. Constitutive expression of Fas ligand by leukemic LGLs support the hypothesis that leukemic cells arise from antigen-activated cytotoxic T cells. Leukemic LGLs express a multidrug-resistance phenotype that could partly explain the chemoresistance observed in aggressive cases. CONCLUSIONS: CD3+ LGL leukemia is a distinct lymphoproliferative T-cell disorder with specific clinicobiological aspects. The clinical spectrum of LGL proliferations is wide and immunophenotypic, and genotypic studies are needed to establish the diagnosis.
Division of Medical Oncology and Hematology, H. Lee Moffitt Cancer Center and Research Institute, Tampa, Florida 33612, USA.