Medline ® Abstracts for References 1,2
Clonal diseases of large granular lymphocytes.
Loughran TP Jr
Three distinct clinical syndromes occur in patients with increased numbers of circulating LGL. Patients with T-LGL leukemia have clonal proliferations of CD3+ LGL typically associated with chronic neutropenia and autoimmune features. NK-LGL leukemia is characterized by clonal CD3- LGL proliferation with an acute clinical presentation marked by massive hepatosplenomegaly and systemic illness. However, most patients with increased numbers of CD3- LGL do not have clinical features of NK-LGL leukemia and have a chronic clinical course. X-linked gene analyses have supported a polyclonal LGL lymphocytosis in this syndrome. Further studies are needed to determine whether clonal progression can occur in these patients.
Veterans Administration Hospital, Syracuse, NY 13210.
Clinical features of large granular lymphocyte leukemia.
Lamy T, Loughran TP Jr
Semin Hematol. 2003;40(3):185.
The spectrum of large granular lymphocyte (LGL) proliferations consists of four distinct entities: reactive/transient LGL expansion, chronic LGL lymphocytosis, classical indolent LGL leukemia, and aggressive LGL leukemia. LGL leukemias are classified as lymphoid malignancies. They are divided into CD3(+)/T-cell LGL (85% of cases) and CD3(-)/natural killer (NK) cell LGL leukemia (15% of cases). Recent progress in the comprehension of the leukemogenesis has shown a dysregulation of survival signals in leukemic cells. Identification of LGL expansion has been improved using T-cell receptor (TCR)beta/gamma polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analysis and a combination of Vbeta and killer cell immunoglobulin-like receptor (KIR)-specific monoclonal antibodies. LGL leukemias are characterized by a clonal LGL infiltration of the bone marrow, spleen, and liver. Monoclonality is recognized by phenotypic, molecular, and karyotypic analysis. T-LGL leukemias affect the elderly and display a relatively indolent behavior. Approximately 60% to 70% of patients are symptomatic: recurrent infections secondary to chronic neutropenia, anemia, and autoimmune disease such as rheumatoid arthritis are the main clinical manifestations. Long-lasting remission can be obtained with low-dose methotrexate, cyclosporine A, or cyclophosphamide. Conversely, NK LGL leukemias behave aggressively, and most patients do not respond to chemotherapy.
Department of Hematology, Pontchaillou University Hospital, Rennes, France.