Medline ® Abstracts for References 44,58-61
OCEANS: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled phase III trial of chemotherapy with or without bevacizumab in patients with platinum-sensitive recurrent epithelial ovarian, primary peritoneal, or fallopian tube cancer.
Aghajanian C, Blank SV, Goff BA, Judson PL, Teneriello MG, Husain A, Sovak MA, Yi J, Nycum LR
J Clin Oncol. 2012;30(17):2039. Epub 2012 Apr 23.
PURPOSE: This randomized, multicenter, blinded, placebo-controlled phase III trial tested the efficacy and safety of bevacizumab (BV) with gemcitabine and carboplatin (GC) compared with GC in platinum-sensitive recurrent ovarian, primary peritoneal, or fallopian tube cancer (ROC).
PATIENTS AND METHODS: Patients with platinum-sensitive ROC (recurrence≥6 months after front-line platinum-based therapy) and measurable disease were randomly assigned to GC plus either BV or placebo (PL) for six to 10 cycles. BV or PL, respectively, was then continued until disease progression. The primary end point was progression-free survival (PFS) by RECIST; secondary end points were objective response rate, duration of response (DOR), overall survival, and safety.
RESULTS: Overall, 484 patients were randomly assigned. PFS for the BV arm was superior to that for the PL arm (hazard ratio [HR], 0.484; 95% CI, 0.388 to 0.605; log-rank P<.0001); median PFS was 12.4 v 8.4 months, respectively. The objective response rate (78.5% v 57.4%; P<.0001) and DOR (10.4 v 7.4 months; HR, 0.534; 95% CI, 0.408 to 0.698) were significantly improved with the addition of BV. No new safety concerns were noted. Grade 3 or higher hypertension (17.4% v<1%) and proteinuria (8.5% v<1%) occurred more frequently in the BV arm. The rates of neutropenia and febrile neutropenia were similar in both arms. Two patients in the BV arm experienced GI perforation after study treatment discontinuation.
CONCLUSION: GC plus BV followed by BV until progression resulted in a statistically significant improvement in PFS compared with GC plus PL in platinum-sensitive ROC.
Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center and Weill Cornell Medical College, New York, NY, USA. firstname.lastname@example.org
Olaparib maintenance therapy in patients with platinum-sensitive, relapsed serous ovarian cancer and a BRCA mutation: Overall survival adjusted for postprogression poly(adenosine diphosphate ribose) polymerase inhibitor therapy.
Matulonis UA, Harter P, Gourley C, Friedlander M, Vergote I, Rustin G, Scott C, Meier W, Shapira-Frommer R, Safra T, Matei D, Fielding A, Spencer S, Parry D, Grinsted L, Ledermann JA
Cancer. 2016 Jun;122(12):1844-52. Epub 2016 Apr 8.
BACKGROUND: Maintenance treatment with the oral poly(adenosine diphosphate ribose) polymerase (PARP) inhibitor olaparib (Lynparza) in Study 19 (study number, D0810C00019; ClinicalTrials.gov identifier, NCT00753545) significantly improved progression-free survival in comparison with a placebo for patients with platinum-sensitive, relapsed serous ovarian cancer with a BRCA1/2 mutation (BRCAm), but an interim analysis revealed no statistically significant overall survival (OS) benefit. However, 23% of the patients receiving the placebo switched to a PARP inhibitor after progression. To investigate whether this had a confounding effect on OS, this article reports an exploratory post hoc analysis that excluded all patients from sites where 1 or more placebo patients received postprogression PARP inhibitor treatment.
METHODS: In Study 19, 136 of the 265 patients receiving olaparib or a placebo had a BRCAm. Sixteen patients treated at 11 of the 82 investigational sites received a PARP inhibitor after progression; these sites were excluded from this analysis, and 97 BRCAm patients at 50 sites were included. OS was assessed with a Cox proportional hazards model analogous to the primary study analysis. A supporting rank-preserving structural failure time (RPSFT) model analysis was undertaken for all 136 BRCAm patients.
RESULTS: The OS hazard ratio (HR) was 0.52 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.28-0.97) for the 97 BRCAm patients, whereas for the interim OS analysis with all 136 BRCAm patients, it was 0.73 (95% CI, 0.45-1.17). The supportive RPSFT analysis HR was approximately 0.66.
CONCLUSIONS: The numerical improvement in the OS HR suggests that in Study 19, postprogression PARP inhibitor treatment had a confounding influence on the interim OS analysis for BRCAm patients. There is a degree of uncertainty due to the small sample size and the lack of data maturity. Cancer 2016;122:1844-52.©2016 American Cancer Society.
Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, Boston, Massachusetts.
Olaparib monotherapy in patients with advanced cancer and a germline BRCA1/2 mutation.
Kaufman B, Shapira-Frommer R, Schmutzler RK, Audeh MW, Friedlander M, Balmaña J, Mitchell G, Fried G, Stemmer SM, Hubert A, Rosengarten O, Steiner M, Loman N, Bowen K, Fielding A, Domchek SM
J Clin Oncol. 2015;33(3):244. Epub 2014 Nov 3.
PURPOSE: Olaparib is an oral poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase inhibitor with activity in germline BRCA1 and BRCA2 (BRCA1/2) -associated breast and ovarian cancers. We evaluated the efficacy and safety of olaparib in a spectrum of BRCA1/2-associated cancers.
PATIENTS AND METHODS: This multicenter phase II study enrolled individuals with a germline BRCA1/2 mutation and recurrent cancer. Eligibility included ovarian cancer resistant to prior platinum; breast cancer with≥three chemotherapy regimens for metastatic disease; pancreatic cancer with prior gemcitabine treatment; or prostate cancer with progression on hormonal and one systemic therapy. Olaparib was administered at 400 mg twice per day. The primary efficacy end point was tumor response rate.
RESULTS: A total of 298 patients received treatment and were evaluable. The tumor response rate was 26.2% (78 of 298; 95% CI, 21.3 to 31.6) overall and 31.1% (60 of 193; 95% CI, 24.6 to 38.1), 12.9% (eight of 62; 95% CI, 5.7 to 23.9), 21.7% (five of 23; 95% CI, 7.5 to 43.7), and 50.0% (four of eight; 95% CI, 15.7 to 84.3) in ovarian, breast, pancreatic, and prostate cancers, respectively. Stable disease≥8 weeks was observed in 42% of patients (95% CI, 36.0 to 47.4), including 40% (95% CI, 33.4 to 47.7), 47% (95% CI, 34.0 to 59.9), 35% (95% CI, 16.4 to 57.3), and 25% (95% CI, 3.2 to 65.1) of those with ovarian, breast, pancreatic, or prostate cancer, respectively. The most common adverse events (AEs) were fatigue, nausea, and vomiting. Grade≥3 AEs were reported for 54% of patients; anemia was the most common (17%).
CONCLUSION: Responses to olaparib were observed across different tumor types associated with germline BRCA1/2 mutations. Olaparib warrants further investigation in confirmatory studies.
Bella Kaufman and Ronnie Shapira-Frommer, Sheba Medical Center, Tel Hashomer; Georgeta Fried, Institute of Oncology, Rambam Health Care Campus; Mariana Steiner, Linn Medical Centre, Haifa; Salomon M. Stemmer, Rabin Medical Center, Petah Tikva; Ayala Hubert, Hadassah-Hebrew University Hospital, Sharett Institute of Oncology; Ora Rosengarten, Shaare Zedek Medical Centre, Jerusalem, Israel; Rita K. Schmutzler, Center for Familial Breast and Ovarian Cancer and Center of Integrated Oncology, Cologne, Germany; M. William Audeh, Samuel Oschin Cancer Institute, Los Angeles, CA; Michael Friedlander, Prince of Wales Clinical School, University of New South Wales, Sydney, New South Wales; Gillian Mitchell, Peter MacCallum Cancer Centre, University of Melbourne, Melbourne, Victoria, Australia; Judith Balmaña, Vall d'Hebron Institute of Oncology, Barcelona, Spain; Niklas Loman, Skånes Universitetssjuk Lund, Lund, Sweden; Karin Bowen and Anitra Fielding, AstraZeneca, Macclesfield, United Kingdom; an
Rucaparib in relapsed, platinum-sensitive high-grade ovarian carcinoma (ARIEL2 Part 1): an international, multicentre, open-label, phase 2 trial.
Swisher EM, Lin KK, Oza AM, Scott CL, Giordano H, Sun J, Konecny GE, Coleman RL, Tinker AV, O'Malley DM, Kristeleit RS, Ma L, Bell-McGuinn KM, Brenton JD, Cragun JM, Oaknin A, Ray-Coquard I, Harrell MI, Mann E, Kaufmann SH, Floquet A, Leary A, Harding TC, Goble S, Maloney L, Isaacson J, Allen AR, Rolfe L, Yelensky R, Raponi M, McNeish IA
Lancet Oncol. 2017;18(1):75. Epub 2016 Nov 29.
BACKGROUND: Poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) inhibitors have activity in ovarian carcinomas with homologous recombination deficiency. Along with BRCA1 and BRCA2 (BRCA) mutations genomic loss of heterozygosity (LOH) might also represent homologous recombination deficiency. In ARIEL2, we assessed the ability of tumour genomic LOH, quantified with a next-generation sequencing assay, to predict response to rucaparib, an oral PARP inhibitor.
METHODS: ARIEL2 is an international, multicentre, two-part, phase 2, open-label study done at 49 hospitals and cancer centres in Australia, Canada, France, Spain, the UK, and the USA. In ARIEL2 Part 1, patients with recurrent, platinum-sensitive, high-grade ovarian carcinoma were classified into one of three predefined homologous recombination deficiency subgroups on the basis of tumour mutational analysis: BRCA mutant (deleterious germline or somatic), BRCA wild-type and LOH high (LOH high group), or BRCA wild-type and LOH low (LOH low group). We prespecified a cutoff of 14% or more genomic LOH for LOH high. Patients began treatment with oral rucaparib at 600 mg twice per day for continuous 28 day cycles until disease progression or any other reason for discontinuation. The primary endpoint was progression-free survival. All patients treated with at least one dose of rucaparib were included in the safety analyses and all treated patients who were classified were included in the primary endpoint analysis. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT01891344. Enrolment into ARIEL2 Part 1 is complete, although an extension (Part 2) is ongoing.
FINDINGS: 256 patients were screened and 206 were enrolled between Oct 30, 2013, and Dec 19, 2014. At the data cutoff date (Jan 18, 2016), 204 patients had received rucaparib, with 28 patients remaining in the study. 192 patients could be classified into one of the three predefined homologous recombination deficiency subgroups: BRCA mutant (n=40), LOH high (n=82), or LOH low (n=70). Tumours from 12 patients were established as BRCA wild-type, but could not be classified for LOH, because of insufficient neoplastic nuclei in the sample. The median duration of treatment for the 204 patients was 5·7 months (IQR 2·8-10·1). 24 patients in the BRCA mutant subgroup, 56 patients in the LOH high subgroup, and 59 patients in the LOH low subgroup had disease progression or died. Median progression-free survival after rucaparib treatment was 12·8 months (95% CI 9·0-14·7) in the BRCA mutant subgroup, 5·7 months (5·3-7·6) in the LOH high subgroup, and 5·2 months (3·6-5·5) in the LOH low subgroup. Progression-free survival was significantly longer in the BRCA mutant (hazard ratio 0·27, 95% CI 0·16-0·44, p<0·0001) and LOH high (0·62, 0·42-0·90, p=0·011) subgroups compared with the LOH low subgroup. The most common grade 3 or worse treatment-emergent adverse events were anaemia or decreased haemoglobin (45 [22%]patients), and elevations in alanine aminotransferase or aspartate aminotransferase (25 [12%]). Common serious adverse events included small intestinal obstruction (10 [5%]of 204 patients), malignant neoplasm progression (10 [5%]), and anaemia (nine [4%]). Three patients died during the study (two because of disease progression and one because of sepsis and disease progression). No treatment-related deaths occurred.
INTERPRETATION: In patients with BRCA mutant or BRCA wild-type and LOH high platinum-sensitive ovarian carcinomas treated with rucaparib, progression-free survival was longer than in patients with BRCA wild-type LOH low carcinomas. Our results suggest that assessment of tumour LOH can be used to identify patients with BRCA wild-type platinum-sensitive ovarian cancers who might benefit from rucaparib. These results extend the potential usefulness of PARP inhibitors in the treatment setting beyond BRCA mutant tumours.
FUNDING: Clovis Oncology, US Department of Defense Ovarian Cancer Research Program, Stand Up To Cancer-Ovarian Cancer Research Fund Alliance-National Ovarian Cancer Coalition Dream Team Translational Research Grant, and V Foundation Translational Award.
University of Washington, Seattle, WA, USA. Electronic address: email@example.com.
A phase II evaluation of the potent, highly selective PARP inhibitor veliparib in the treatment of persistent or recurrent epithelial ovarian, fallopian tube, or primary peritoneal cancer in patients who carry a germline BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutation - An NRG Oncology/Gynecologic Oncology Group study.
Coleman RL, Sill MW, Bell-McGuinn K, Aghajanian C, Gray HJ, Tewari KS, Rubin SC, Rutherford TJ, Chan JK, Chen A, Swisher EM
Gynecol Oncol. 2015;137(3):386. Epub 2015 Mar 24.
BACKGROUND: Veliparib is a potent small molecule inhibitor of PARP-1/2, which is cytotoxic in tumor cells with deficiencies in BRCA1 or BRCA2. We studied the clinical activity and toxicity of veliparib in ovarian cancer patients carrying a germline BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutation (gBRCA).
METHODS: Eligibility included three or fewer prior chemotherapy regimens, measurable disease and no prior use of a PARP inhibitor. Veliparib was administered at 400mg orally BID with one cycle being 28days. The two-stage Simon design was capable of detecting a 25% response probability with 90% power while controlling alpha=10% (at a 10% assumed null response probability).
RESULTS: The median age of the 50 eligible patients was 57years (range 37-94) and 14, 18, and 18 patients had 1,2, and 3 prior therapies respectively. Thirty patients (60%) were platinum-resistant. The median number of cycles administered was 6 (1-27). There was one grade 4 thrombocytopenia. Grade 3 adverse events were: fatigue (n=3), nausea (2), leukopenia (1), neutropenia (1), dehydration (1), and ALT (1). Grade 2 events>10% were: nausea (46%), fatigue (26%), vomiting (18%), and anemia (14%). The proportion responding was 26% (90% CI: 16%-38%, CR: 2, PR: 11); for platinum-resistant and platinum-sensitive patients the proportion responding was 20% and 35%, respectively. The most common reason for treatment discontinuation was progression (62%). Twenty-nine patients are alive; two with SD remain on veliparib. The median PFS is 8.18months.
CONCLUSIONS: The single agent efficacy and tolerability of veliparib for BRCA mutation-associated recurrent ovarian cancer warrants further investigation.
Dept. of Gynecologic Oncology&Reproductive Medicine, University of Texas, M.D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX 77030, USA. Electronic address: firstname.lastname@example.org.