Medline ® Abstract for Reference 8
MR contrast agents for liver imaging: what, when, how.
Gandhi SN, Brown MA, Wong JG, Aguirre DA, Sirlin CB
The major classes of contrast agents currently used for magnetic resonance (MR) imaging of the liver include extracellular agents (eg, low-molecular-weight gadolinium chelates), reticuloendothelial agents (eg, ferumoxides), hepatobiliary agents (eg, mangafodipir), blood pool agents, and combined agents. Mechanisms of action, dosage, elimination, toxic effects, indications for use, and MR imaging technical considerations vary according to class. Gadolinium chelates are the most widely used. Ferumoxides are a useful adjunct for detection of hepatocellular carcinoma, particularly when used in combination with gadolinium to achieve improved lesion-to-liver contrast over that achievable with gadolinium alone. Mangafodipir is a prototype hepatobiliary agent that is taken up by lesions with functioning hepatocytes. It may be used for MR cholangiography as well as liver imaging. Although mangafodipir is no longer commercially available in the United States, it is currently marketed and used in Europe. Blood pool agents have not yet been approved for human use in the United States. However, a new combined MR contrast agent, gadobenate dimeglumine, recently was approved, and other agents are in various stages of development.
Department of Radiology, UCSD Medical Center, 200 W Arbor Dr, San Diego, CA 92103, USA.