Medline ® Abstracts for References 3-7
Genetic susceptibility to pancreatic cancer.
Mol Carcinog. 2012;51(1):14.
Pancreatic cancer is the fourth leading cause of cancer death in both men and women in the United States. However, it has the poorest prognosis of any major tumor type, with a 5-yr survival rate of approximately 5%. Cigarette smoking, increased body mass index, heavy alcohol consumption, and a diagnosis of diabetes mellitus have all been demonstrated to increase risk of pancreatic cancer. A family history of pancreatic cancer has also been associated with increased risk suggesting inherited genetic factors also play an important role, with approximately 5-10% of pancreatic cancer patients reporting family history of pancreatic cancer. While the genetic basis for the majority of the familial clustering of pancreatic cancer remains unclear, several important pancreatic cancer genes have been identified. These consist of high penetrance genes including BRCA2 or PALB2, to more common genetic variation associated with a modest increase risk of pancreatic cancer such as genetic variation at the ABO blood group locus. Recent advances in genotyping and genetic sequencing have accelerated the rate at which novel pancreatic cancer susceptibility genes have been identified with several genes identified within the past few years. This review addresses our current understanding of the familial aggregation of pancreatic cancer, established pancreatic cancer susceptablity genes and how this knowledge informs risk assessment and screening for high-risk families.
Department of Oncology and Pathology, Sol Goldman Pancreatic Cancer Research Center, Sidney Kimmel Comprehensive Cancer Center, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland 21231, USA.
Schneider R, Slater EP, Sina M, et al. German national case collection for familial pancreatic cancer (FaPaCa): ten years experience. Familial Cancer 2011.
no abstract available
International Cancer of the Pancreas Screening (CAPS) Consortium summit on the management of patients with increased risk for familial pancreatic cancer.
Canto MI, Harinck F, Hruban RH, Offerhaus GJ, Poley JW, Kamel I, Nio Y, Schulick RS, Bassi C, Kluijt I, Levy MJ, Chak A, Fockens P, Goggins M, Bruno M, on behalf of the International Cancer of the Pancreas Screening (CAPS) Consortium
Gut. 2013 Mar;62(3):339-347. Epub 2012 Nov 7.
BACKGROUND: Screening individuals at increased risk for pancreatic cancer (PC) detects early, potentially curable, pancreatic neoplasia. OBJECTIVE: To develop consortium statements on screening, surveillance and management of high-risk individuals with an inherited predisposition to PC. METHODS: A 49-expert multidisciplinary international consortium met to discuss pancreatic screening and vote on statements. Consensus was considered reached if≥75% agreed or disagreed. RESULTS: There was excellent agreement that, to be successful, a screening programme should detect and treat T1N0M0 margin-negative PC and high-grade dysplastic precursor lesions (pancreatic intraepithelial neoplasia and intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasm). It was agreed that the following were candidates for screening: first-degree relatives (FDRs) of patients with PC from a familial PC kindred with at least two affected FDRs; patients with Peutz-Jeghers syndrome; and p16, BRCA2 and hereditary non-polyposis colorectal cancer (HNPCC) mutation carriers with≥1 affected FDR. Consensus was not reached for the age to initiate screening or stop surveillance. It was agreed that initial screening should include endoscopic ultrasonography (EUS) and/or MRI/magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography not CT or endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography. There was no consensus on the need for EUS fine-needle aspiration to evaluate cysts. There was disagreement on optimal screening modalities and intervals for follow-up imaging. When surgery is recommended it should be performed at a high-volume centre. There was great disagreement as to which screening abnormalities were of sufficient concern to for surgery to be recommended. CONCLUSIONS: Screening is recommended for high-risk individuals, but more evidence is needed, particularly for how to manage patients with detected lesions. Screening and subsequent management should take place at high-volume centres with multidisciplinary teams, preferably within research protocols.
Division of Gastroenterology, Johns Hopkins University, The Sol Goldman Pancreatic Cancer Research Center, 1830 E Monument Street, Room 427, Baltimore, MD 21205, USA; firstname.lastname@example.org.
Prospective risk of pancreatic cancer in familial pancreatic cancer kindreds.
Klein AP, Brune KA, Petersen GM, Goggins M, Tersmette AC, Offerhaus GJ, Griffin C, Cameron JL, Yeo CJ, Kern S, Hruban RH
Cancer Res. 2004;64(7):2634.
Individuals with a family history of pancreatic cancer have an increased risk of developing pancreatic cancer. Quantification of this risk provides a rational basis for cancer risk counseling and for screening for early pancreatic cancer. In a prospective registry-based study, we estimated the risk of pancreatic cancer in individuals with a family history of pancreatic cancer. Standardized incidence ratios were calculated by comparing the number of incident pancreatic cancers observed with those expected using Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results (SEER) rates. Familial pancreatic cancer (FPC) kindreds were defined as kindreds having at least one pair of first-degree relatives with pancreatic cancer, and sporadic pancreatic cancer (SPC) kindreds as families without such an affected pair. Nineteen incident pancreatic cancers developed among 5,179 individuals from 838 kindreds (at baseline, 370 FPC kindreds and 468 SPC kindreds). Of these 5,179 individuals, 3,957 had at least one first-degree relative with pancreatic cancer and contributed 10,538 person-years of follow-up. In this group, the observed-to-expected rate of pancreatic cancer was significantly elevated in members of FPC kindreds [9.0; 95% confidence interval (CI), 4.5-16.1], but not in the SPC kindreds (1.8; 95% CI., 0.22-6.4). This risk inFPC kindreds was elevated in individuals with three (32.0; 95% CI, 10.2-74.7), two (6.4; CI, 1.8-16.4), or one (4.6; CI, 0.5-16.4) first-degree relative(s) with pancreatic cancer. Risk was not increased among 369 spouses and other genetically unrelated relatives. Risk was higher in smokers than in nonsmokers. Individuals with a strong family history of pancreatic cancer have a significantly increased risk of developing pancreatic cancer.
Statistical Genetics Section, Inherited Disease Research Branch, National Human Genome Research Institute, NIH, Baltimore, Maryland, USA.
Familial association of pancreatic cancer with other malignancies in Swedish families.
Hiripi E, Lorenzo Bermejo J, Li X, Sundquist J, Hemminki K
Br J Cancer. 2009 Nov;101(10):1792-7. Epub 2009 Oct 13.
BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to characterise the familial association of pancreatic cancer with other malignancies.
METHODS: Relative risks (RRs) of pancreatic cancer according to family history of cancer were calculated using the updated Swedish Family-Cancer Database, which includes over 11.5 million individuals. Estimates were based on Poisson regression. RRs of tumours for individuals with a parental history of pancreatic cancer were also estimated.
RESULTS: The risk of pancreatic cancer was elevated in individuals with a parental history of cancers of the liver (RR 1.41; 95% CI 1.10-1.81), kidney (RR 1.37; 95% CI 1.06-1.76), lung (RR 1.50; 95% CI 1.27-1.79) and larynx (RR 1.98; 95% CI 1.19-3.28). Associations were also found between parental history of pancreatic cancer and cancers of the small intestine, colon, breast, lung, testis and cervix in offspring. There was an increased risk of pancreatic cancer associated with early-onset breast cancer in siblings.
CONCLUSION: Pancreatic cancer aggregates in families with several types of cancer. Smoking may contribute to the familial aggregation of pancreatic and lung tumours, and the familial clustering of pancreatic and breast cancer could be partially explained by inherited mutations in the BRCA2 gene.
Division of Molecular Genetic Epidemiology, German Cancer Research Center (DKFZ) Im Neuenheimer Feld 580, 69120, Germany. email@example.com