Medline ® Abstract for Reference 230
HLA-DQA1*02:01 is a major risk factor for lapatinib-induced hepatotoxicity in women with advanced breast cancer.
Spraggs CF, Budde LR, Briley LP, Bing N, Cox CJ, King KS, Whittaker JC, Mooser VE, Preston AJ, Stein SH, Cardon LR
J Clin Oncol. 2011 Feb;29(6):667-73. Epub 2011 Jan 18.
PURPOSE: Hepatobiliary adverse events (AEs) have been observed in a small proportion of patients with metastatic breast cancer (MBC) treated with lapatinib. This study sought to identify gene variants associated with lapatinib-induced ALT elevation and hepatobiliary AEs.
PATIENTS AND METHODS: A two-stage pharmacogenetic investigation of ALT elevation was conducted in lapatinib-treated patients with MBC. Exploratory marker identification evaluated classical HLA alleles, candidate genes, and genome-wide screening in 37 cases with ALT greater than 3 times the upper limit of normal (ULN) and 286 controls with ALT≤1×ULN, selected from 901 lapatinib-treated patients in 12 trials. Markers achieving prespecified association thresholds were progressed to an independent confirmatory data set of 24 ALT cases and 155 controls selected from a subsequent trial of 374 lapatinib-treated patients.
RESULTS: Of 58 variants associated with ALTelevation in the exploratory data set, four exceeded the prespecified significance threshold in the confirmatory analysis. These variants reside in the same MHC genomic locus and include HLA-DQA1*02:01. In the confirmatory study, DQA1*02:01 allele carriage was present in 71% of ALT cases and in 21% of controls (P<.001; odds ratio, 9.0; 95% CI, 3.2 to 27.4). As a predictor of liver safety risk in ALT cases versus noncases, DQA1*02:01 had negative and positive predictive values of 0.97 (95% CI, 0.95 to 0.99) and 0.17 (95% CI 0.10 to 0.26), respectively.
CONCLUSION: These results support a role for immune mechanisms in lapatinib-induced hepatotoxicity. Further work is required to determine whether testing for DQA1*02:01 allele carriage is clinically useful in managing liver safety risk during lapatinib treatment.
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