Medline ® Abstract for Reference 179
Population pharmacokinetics/pharmacodynamics of docetaxel in phase II studies in patients with cancer.
Bruno R, Hille D, Riva A, Vivier N, ten Bokkel Huinnink WW, van Oosterom AT, Kaye SB, Verweij J, Fossella FV, Valero V, Rigas JR, Seidman AD, Chevallier B, Fumoleau P, Burris HA, Ravdin PM, Sheiner LB
J Clin Oncol. 1998;16(1):187.
PURPOSE: The population pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic (PK/PD) approach was prospectively integrated in the clinical development of docetaxel to assess the PK profile in a large population of patients and investigate systemic exposure as a prognostic factor for clinical outcome.
PATIENTS AND METHODS: PK analysis was performed at first course in 24 phase II studies of docetaxel monotherapy using four randomized limited-sampling schedules. Bayesian estimates of clearance (CL), area under the concentration-time curve (AUC), and peak and duration of plasma levels greater than threshold levels were used as measures of exposure. PD data included for efficacy, response rate, time to first response, and time to progression (TTP) in breast cancer and non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC), and for toxicity, grade 4 neutropenia, and febrile neutropenia at first course and time to onset of fluid retention. PK/PD analysis was conducted using logistic and Cox multivariate regression models.
RESULTS: PK protocol implementation was successful. Most of the patients registered (721 of 936, 77%) were sampled and 68% were assessable for PK (640 patients). First-course docetaxel AUC was a significant predictor (P = .0232) of TTP in NSCLC (n = 151). Docetaxel CL was a strong independent predictor (P<.0001) of both grade 4 neutropenia and febrile neutropenia (n = 582). Cumulative dose was the strongest predictor (P<.0001) of the time to onset of fluid retention (n = 631). However, the duration of exposure over 0.20 micromol/L (0.16 microg/mL) at first course was an independent predictor (P = .0029). Few patients (n = 25, 4%) received the recommended dexamethasone premedication.
CONCLUSION: First-course docetaxel PK is a predictor of first-course hematologic toxicity, but also of fluid retention, which is cumulative in nature. Patients with elevated hepatic enzymes have a 27% reduction in docetaxel CL and are at a higher risk of toxicity. A starting dose of 75 mg/m2 is currently being evaluated in this population. Prospective implementation of large-scale population PK/PD evaluation is feasible in early drug development and this approach generates clinically relevant findings.
Drug Metabolism and Pharmacokinetics Department, Rhône-Poulenc Rorer, Antony, France. rene.bruno@rp_rorer.fr