Medline ® Abstract for Reference 165
Predicting etoposide toxicity: relationship to organ function and protein binding.
Joel SP, Shah R, Clark PI, Slevin ML
J Clin Oncol. 1996;14(1):257.
PURPOSE: To investigate the effect of organ function on total and free etoposide pharmacokinetics and hematologic toxicity.
PATIENTS AND METHODS: Seventy-two patients who received single-agent intravenous (i.v.) etoposide over 5 or 8 days (total dose, 500 mg/m2) were studied. Pharmacokinetic parameters were derived after analysis of total plasma etoposide by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with ultraviolet (UV) detection, and etoposide protein binding by ultrafiltration of an etoposide-spiked, pretreatment serum sample, followed by HPLC analysis. Free etoposide area under the concentration-time curve (AUC) was derived from the total AUC and protein binding.
RESULTS: Patients with renal impairment (serum creatinine level>130 mumol/L) had a lower plasma etoposide clearance (13.6 v 18.5 mL/min/m2; P = .016), resulting in an increased total-drug and free-drug AUC (total etoposide AUC 615 v 452 micrograms/mL.hr; P = .016; free etoposide AUC 26.0 v 17.6 micrograms/mL.hr; P = .026) and increased hematologic toxicity (nadir neutrophil count 0.3 v 1.9 x 10(9)/L; P = .005). Patients with albumin levels less than 35 g/L had no change in total etoposide kineticsbut had an increase in unbound etoposide (5.2% v 4.1%; P = .01), resulting in an increase in free etoposide AUC (27.5 v 16.5 micrograms/mL.hr; P = .003) and more profound toxicity (nadir neutrophil count 0.6 v 1.9 x 10(9)/L; P = .004). In patients with normal albumin and creatinine, increased toxicity in those older than 65 years was associated with a reduced drug clearance, and in those with increased liver enzymes by a trend toward an increase in free etoposide AUC.
CONCLUSION: Increased hematologic toxicity after etoposide in patients with abnormal organ function is mediated by an increase in free etoposide AUC. A reduction in dose is clearly indicated in such patients.
Department of Medical Oncology, St Bartholomew's Hospital, London, United Kingdom.