Medline ® Abstract for Reference 19
A second-generation microRNA-based assay for diagnosing tumor tissue origin.
Meiri E, Mueller WC, Rosenwald S, Zepeniuk M, Klinke E, Edmonston TB, Werner M, Lass U, Barshack I, Feinmesser M, Huszar M, Fogt F, Ashkenazi K, Sanden M, Goren E, Dromi N, Zion O, Burnstein I, Chajut A, Spector Y, Aharonov R
Oncologist. 2012;17(6):801-12. Epub 2012 May 22.
BACKGROUND: Cancers of unknown primary origin (CUP) constitute 3%-5% (50,000 to 70,000 cases) of all newly diagnosed cancers per year in the United States. Including cancers of uncertain primary origin, the total number increases to 12%-15% (180,000 to 220,000 cases) of all newly diagnosed cancers per year in the United States. Cancers of unknown/uncertain primary origins present major diagnostic and clinical challenges because the tumor tissue of origin is crucial for selecting optimal treatment. MicroRNAs are a family of noncoding, regulatory RNA genes involved in carcinogenesis. MicroRNAs that are highly stable in clinical samples and tissue specific serve as ideal biomarkers for cancer diagnosis. Our first-generation assay identified the tumor of origin based on 48 microRNAs measured on a quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction platform and differentiated 25 tumor types.
METHODS: We present here the development and validation of a second-generation assay that identifies 42 tumor types using a custom microarray. A combination of a binary decision-tree and a k-nearest-neighbor classifier was developed to identify the tumor of origin based on the expression of 64 microRNAs.
RESULTS: Overall assay sensitivity (positive agreement), measured blindly on a validation set of 509 independent samples, was 85%. The sensitivity reached 90% for cases in which the assay reported a single answer (>80% of cases). A clinical validation study on 52 true CUP patients showed 88% concordance with the clinicopathological evaluation of the patients.
CONCLUSION: The abilities of the assay to identify 42 tumor types with high accuracy and to maintain the same performance in samples from patients clinically diagnosed with CUP promise improved utility in the diagnosis of cancers of unknown/uncertain primary origins.
Rosetta Genomics, Rehovot, Israel.