Disclosures: David M Rind, MD Employee of UpToDate, Inc. Equity Ownership/Stock Options (Spouse): Bonfire Development Advisors [CBT (iCBT)]. H Nancy Sokol, MD Nothing to disclose. Lee Park, MD, MPH Employment (Spouse): Novartis [Age-related macular degeneration (ranibizumab)].
Contributor disclosures are reviewed for conflicts of interest by the editorial group. When found, these are addressed by vetting through a multi-level review process, and through requirements for references to be provided to support the content. Appropriately referenced content is required of all authors and must conform to UpToDate standards of evidence.
The following represent additions to UpToDate from the past six months that were considered by the editors and authors to be of particular interest. The most recent What's New entries are at the top of each subsection.
ADULT GENERAL INTERNAL MEDICINE
US ACIP recommendations for serogroup B meningococcal vaccination (June 2015)
In late 2014 and early 2015, the US Food and Drug Administration approved two serogroup B meningococcal vaccines (Trumenba, MenB-FHbp and Bexsero, MenB-4C). In June 2015, the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP) issued recommendations for serogroup B meningococcal vaccine for high-risk individuals aged 10 years or older; these include individuals with persistent complement component deficiencies, individuals with anatomic or functional asplenia, microbiologists routinely exposed to N. meningitidis isolates, and individuals at increased risk because of a serogroup B meningococcal disease outbreak . These indications overlap with those for the quadrivalent meningococcal conjugate vaccine and are summarized in the table (table 1). Among patients with none of the above risk factors, the ACIP advises discussion between doctors and patients regarding vaccination against serogroup B meningococcus; routine vaccination has not been recommended . (See "Meningococcal vaccines", section on 'Use in United States'.)
Comparison of commercial weight loss programs in the United States (April 2015)
A comprehensive lifestyle intervention (combined diet, exercise, and behavioral treatment) is the most important strategy for weight management. Self-help or commercial weight loss programs incorporate varying degrees of behavioral modification strategies with dietary change. A systematic review of the major available programs in the United States reported outcomes based upon a variety of measures . Only two programs (Weight Watchers and Jenny Craig) reported 12-month outcomes. Compared with control groups that included education or education plus counseling, trials found an approximately 3 to 5 percent greater weight loss at 12 months for participants in the intervention arms. Longer-term outcomes are needed to better evaluate the effectiveness of other commercial programs. Commercial programs are an option for weight management of overweight or obese patients, with the recommendation that programs with clinically demonstrated efficacy be the first choice. (See "Obesity in adults: Behavioral therapy", section on 'Self-help or commercial weight loss programs'.)
Herbal products for treatment of insomnia (March 2015)
A variety of herbal products are purported to be useful for insomnia. There is little evidence from randomized controlled trials about the efficacy of many herbals, however, and for those that have been well studied (eg, valerian), there is little evidence of benefit. A meta-analysis of 14 randomized trials in over 1600 patients found no significant difference between any herbal medicine and placebo on any clinical insomnia outcome measure . The majority of the trials (11 out of 14) studied valerian; chamomile, kava, and wuling were studied in one trial each. Unlike other herbals in the study, valerian was associated with a greater number of adverse events per person compared with placebo. (See "Treatment of insomnia", section on 'Over-the-counter'.)
Long duration of hot flashes (March 2015)
For many if not most menopausal women, hot flashes last considerably longer than the duration currently recommended for treatment of symptoms (maximum 4 to 5 years to minimize excess breast cancer risk). Among 1449 women with hot flashes followed longitudinally in the Study of Women Across the Nation (SWAN), the median total hot flash duration was 7.4 years, with symptoms persisting for a median of 4.5 years after the final menstrual period (FMP) . Women who were premenopausal or early perimenopausal when they first experienced hot flashes had the longest total duration (>11.8 years, post-FMP median duration 9.4 years). The long duration of hot flashes raises important treatment challenges for many women, particularly those with early onset symptoms. (See "Menopausal hot flashes", section on 'Duration'.)
Revised name and diagnostic criteria for chronic fatigue syndrome (February 2015)
Diagnostic criteria for chronic fatigue syndrome have been revised (table 2) by the Institute of Medicine (IOM), which has also suggested renaming the condition as systemic exertion intolerance disease (SEID) . The IOM diagnostic criteria focus on the most specific features of the disease. Symptoms should be present for at least six months and have moderate, substantial, or severe intensity at least one-half of the time. Other criteria include post-exertional malaise, sleep problems, cognitive impairment, and orthostatic-related symptoms. (See "Clinical features and diagnosis of chronic fatigue syndrome (systemic exertion intolerance disease)", section on 'Definition'.)
Light-emitting e-readers delay normal circadian rhythms and interfere with sleep (February 2015)
Prolonged use of portable light-emitting devices (laptops, tablets, smartphones) before bedtime can have a negative impact on melatonin secretion, circadian rhythms, and sleep. One study compared the effects of reading an electronic book on a light-emitting device (LE-ebook) versus a printed book (by reflected light) for four hours prior to bedtime for five consecutive nights . Subjects in the LE-ebook group had suppressed melatonin concentrations in the early part of the night, a delayed endogenous circadian melatonin phase, felt less sleepy before bed, took longer to fall asleep, and reported feeling sleepier the following morning. These observations suggest that evening use of light-emitting devices may contribute to phase-delays in the circadian clock and difficulty initiating sleep. (See "Physiology and available preparations of melatonin", section on 'Effects of drugs or light'.)
Adverse consequences of opioid use in chronic pain (January 2015)
There is uncertainty that opioids have long-term effectiveness in the treatment of fibromyalgia or other chronic pain conditions, and risks of harm from chronic opioid therapy likely outweigh the benefits. The avoidance of opioids in patients with chronic pain is further supported by a 2015 systematic review of the effectiveness and risks of long-term opioid therapy for chronic pain . The review showed evidence of a dose-dependent risk for a range of harms, such as overdose, opioid abuse, fractures, myocardial infarction, and sexual dysfunction, but found insufficient evidence from observational studies to determine the effectiveness of such therapy and no placebo-controlled trials that met inclusion criteria for the review. (See "Treatment of fibromyalgia in adults not responsive to initial therapies", section on 'Analgesics' and "Overview of the treatment of chronic pain".)
Antihypertensive therapy provides benefit in mild hypertension (January 2015)
The benefit of antihypertensive drug therapy has been questioned in patients with mild hypertension (systolic 140 to 159 mmHg and/or diastolic 90 to 99 mmHg) and no preexisting cardiovascular disease. A meta-analysis including 15,266 such patients reported that, compared with placebo or a less intensive regimen, antihypertensive therapy or a more intensive regimen for five years produced significantly lower rates of all-cause mortality (3.9 versus 4.8 percent) and stroke (1.6 versus 2.1 percent), and similar rates of myocardial infarction . Thus, low-risk patients with mild hypertension and no preexisting cardiovascular disease who fail to reduce their blood pressure with lifestyle modification should receive antihypertensive therapy. (See "Hypertension: Who should be treated?", section on 'Low-risk patients'.)
Approval of the direct factor Xa inhibitor edoxaban (January 2015)
The US Food and Drug Administration has approved the oral direct factor Xa inhibitor edoxaban (Savaysa; Lixiana in Japan) for the prevention of stroke in nonvalvular atrial fibrillation and the treatment of venous thromboembolism, based upon earlier randomized trials demonstrating non-inferiority to warfarin [10-12]. Dosing is once daily at a fixed dose without monitoring. There are Boxed Warnings regarding avoidance of edoxaban in patients with atrial fibrillation who have a creatinine clearance >95 mL/minute, spinal/epidural hematoma in patients undergoing neuraxial procedures, and ischemic events following premature discontinuation. (See "Atrial fibrillation: Anticoagulant therapy to prevent embolization" and "Lower extremity deep venous thrombosis: Long-term anticoagulation (10 days to three months)" and "Anticoagulation in acute pulmonary embolism" and "Anticoagulation with direct thrombin inhibitors and direct factor Xa inhibitors", section on 'Edoxaban'.)
PCI versus CABG in patients with stable coronary artery disease (March 2015)
For patients with multivessel coronary artery disease (CAD), the optimal revascularization strategy is not known, in part because prior studies have used older generation stents. Two studies, one a randomized trial (BEST)  and one observational , found that coronary artery bypass surgery (CABG), compared with percutaneous coronary intervention with newer generation stents, is associated with a lower rate of repeat revascularization and myocardial infarction but a higher rate of stroke. We prefer CABG for many patients with multivessel CAD. (See "Revascularization in patients with stable coronary artery disease: Coronary artery bypass graft surgery versus percutaneous coronary intervention", section on 'DES compared to CABG'.)
Home modifications to prevent falls (January 2015)
Fall prevention for community dwelling older adults has the potential to significantly improve quality of life and impact morbidity and mortality, but few fall prevention interventions have been shown to be effective. A cluster-randomized trial evaluated a standardized set of home safety interventions (installation of stair hand rails, grab rails in bathrooms, improved lighting, slip-resistant deck surfacing, non-slip bathmats, pamphlet on home safety), comparing injury-related insurance claims in households that were randomized to the intervention with those that were wait-listed . Over a three year period, there was a 26 percent decrease in fall-related injuries in the intervention group compared to the control group. (See "Falls: Prevention in community-dwelling older persons", section on 'Environment/assistive technology'.)
Reduced HPV vaccination rate among women who have sex with women (May 2015)
Prior research has suggested that women who have sex with women (WSW) may be less likely to initiate human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination than their age-matched heterosexual peers. One possible reason for this discrepancy is that both WSW and their healthcare providers may erroneously believe that WSW are not at risk for HPV infection or cervical cancer. In one study of over 12,000 United States women from 2006 to 2010, of women who were aware of the HPV vaccine, only 8 percent of lesbian women had initiated vaccination compared with 28 percent of heterosexual women and 32 percent of bisexual women . This study highlights the need for healthcare providers to discuss HPV vaccination with all patients. The American Academy of Pediatrics and the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists recommend vaccination for females and males ages 11 or 12 years of age, up to age 26. (See "Medical care of women who have sex with women", section on 'Prevention of sexually transmitted diseases'.)
Folate and cardiovascular prevention (May 2015)
Homocysteine reduction with B vitamin supplementation has not generally appeared to be beneficial in reducing cardiovascular risk. However, there have been concerns that most trials have not adequately assessed baseline folate intake in participants. A randomized trial of folic acid supplementation in Chinese adults with hypertension found a reduction in the risk of first stroke (2.7 versus 3.4 percent) . This trial was performed in patients with low folate levels and with very low rates of use of statins and antiplatelet agents, and there was some suggestion that the benefit was primarily in patients with the lowest baseline levels of folate. These results are consistent with an earlier meta-analysis of folic acid supplementation and stroke that found benefits in populations with no or partial fortification of food with folic acid, and that also found greater benefit in trials in patients with low use of statins . In patients coming from areas without dietary fortification, or who have diets that may have inadequate folate (eg, severe alcoholics), B-vitamin supplementation may be appropriate. (See "Overview of homocysteine", section on 'Supplementation in the general population'.)
The efficacy of an inactivated vaccine to prevent zoster (April 2015)
The live attenuated zoster vaccine reduces the risk of herpes zoster with a reported vaccine efficacy of 60 to 70 percent in adults 50 years and older, but it cannot be used in immunocompromised individuals and may have decreased efficacy in adults 70 years and older. A randomized, placebo-controlled trial evaluated the efficacy of HZ/su, an experimental recombinant inactivated zoster vaccine administered in two doses two months apart, among 15,411 adults 50 years and older . After three years of follow-up, the overall vaccine efficacy against herpes zoster was 97.2 percent (95% CI 93.7-99.0), and efficacy among adults 70 years and older was similar to that seen in adults between 50 and 69 years of age. (See "Prevention of varicella-zoster virus infection: Herpes zoster", section on 'Inactivated vaccines'.)
Statins and pregnancy (April 2015)
The safety of statins in pregnancy is uncertain, but animal studies have raised concerns about fetal harm; human data are mixed. A cohort study of women enrolled in the US Medicaid program found that an association between statins and malformations was no longer present after a propensity analysis that controlled for potential confounders; pre-existing diabetes appeared to be the most important confounder . However, the wide confidence intervals in this study do not exclude a potential increase (or decrease) in risk with statin therapy. We continue to recommend that statins be discontinued prior to conception if possible. (See "Statins: Actions, side effects, and administration", section on 'Risks in pregnancy and breastfeeding'.)
Exercise and vitamin D for fall prevention in older women (March 2015)
A randomized trial in home-dwelling women aged 70 to 80 years old with a history of at least one fall in the previous year evaluated the effect of exercise and/or vitamin D supplementation (800 IU per day) on fall prevention . Strength and balance training did not affect the rate of falls, but halved the number of injurious falls and injured fallers, and improved muscle strength and balance compared with no exercise. Vitamin D, compared with placebo, did not prevent falls or fall-related injuries. Baseline 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels in the trial participants (26 to 28 ng/mL) were above the threshold for what is generally considered deficient. Prior meta-analyses have inconsistent findings on the effectiveness of vitamin D in fall prevention. We continue to suggest an exercise program to improve strength and balance for older adults at risk for falls. Given the low risk associated with vitamin D supplementation, and the possibility of benefit at least in adults with low baseline levels of vitamin D, we also continue to advise vitamin D supplementation. (See "Falls: Prevention in community-dwelling older persons", section on 'Exercise' and "Falls: Prevention in community-dwelling older persons", section on 'Vitamin D supplementation'.)
PCSK9 inhibitors to reduce LDL-cholesterol (March 2015)
Monoclonal antibodies that inhibit proprotein convertase subtilisin kexin 9 (anti-PCSK9 abs) reduce LDL-cholesterol levels by as much as 70 percent. In contrast with many of the other agents that have been used for lipid lowering, these agents also appear to produce substantial clinical benefits:
●A meta-analysis of randomized trials in a variety of clinical situations found that anti-PCSK9 abs reduced all-cause mortality (odds ratio [OR] 0.45), cardiovascular (CV) mortality (OR 0.50), and myocardial infarction (OR 0.49) . No statistical heterogeneity was found among the included trial results, suggesting that, as has been seen with statins, the relative benefits of anti-PCSK9 abs may be similar across a wide range of clinical situations and baseline risks of CV disease.
●Treatment with the anti-PCSK9 abs evolocumab and alirocumab appears to result in additional reductions in risk, even in patients already on intensive or maximal statin therapy. In two open-label trials that were combined for analysis in which approximately 70 percent of participants were receiving statins, patients treated with evolocumab had a lower rate of CV events (1.0 versus 2.2 percent) . In a placebo-controlled trial in which participants were receiving maximal tolerated statin therapy, patients treated with alirocumab had a lower rate of a post hoc CV composite (1.7 versus 3.3 percent); however, there was no statistically-significant reduction in the originally planned CV safety composite. Neurocognitive events, although uncommon, appeared to occur with both medications, and both require subcutaneous injection once or twice per month.
PCSK9 inhibitors are not yet generally available, but may become an important class of medication for reducing CV risk. (See "Lipid lowering with drugs other than statins and fibrates", section on 'PCSK9 inhibitors'.)
Choice of influenza vaccine formulation in patients with egg allergy (March 2015)
Most influenza vaccines are produced in an egg-based system, which has been a concern in patients with egg allergy. A number of observational studies have shown that administration of injectable inactivated influenza vaccine (IIV) containing up to 0.7 mcg ovalbumin per 0.5 mL dose is safe in patients with egg allergy. Two new observational studies have demonstrated safe administration of the intranasal live attenuated influenza vaccine (LAIV) containing <0.24 mcg ovalbumin per 0.2 mL dose in patients with egg allergy [24,25]. Influenza vaccine ovalbumin content is shown in the table (table 3). About 40 percent of patients in these studies had a history of anaphylaxis to egg and around 60 to 70 percent had asthma.
Based upon these findings and accumulating unpublished clinical experience, we recommend that all patients with egg allergy ≥6 months of age, including those with a history of anaphylaxis, receive annual immunization with an influenza vaccine according to the indications for all other patients without egg allergy. We would administer any age-appropriate, approved influenza vaccine (table 3), including the LAIV, in these patients according to the indications and contraindications outlined in the tables (table 4 and table 5). The vaccine is administered in a single dose rather than in two or more doses as a graded challenge. A 30 minute observation period is still suggested for patients with egg allergy who receive an egg-based influenza vaccine. This observation period is not necessary for those receiving an egg-free influenza vaccine. (See "Influenza vaccination in individuals with egg allergy", section on 'Safety of vaccines in patients with egg allergy' and "Influenza vaccination in individuals with egg allergy", section on 'Our approach'.)
Pneumococcal conjugate vaccine in adults ≥65 years of age (September 2014, MODIFIED March 2015)
The CAPiTA trial, which is the largest trial to assess the efficacy of the 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV13, Prevnar 13) in adults, compared PCV13 to placebo in approximately 85,000 immunocompetent adults ≥65 years of age in the Netherlands who had not received a pneumococcal vaccine previously . The trial demonstrated 46 percent efficacy of PCV13 against vaccine-type pneumococcal pneumonia, 45 percent efficacy against vaccine-type nonbacteremic pneumococcal pneumonia, and 75 percent efficacy against vaccine-type invasive pneumococcal disease. Efficacy persisted for the duration of the trial (mean follow-up four years). However, some concern has been raised that since this trial began before PCV13 was used routinely in infants in the Netherlands, it might not answer the question of whether its use in adults is efficacious in countries that routinely vaccinate infants. (See "Pneumococcal vaccination in adults", section on 'Efficacy'.)
The 23-valent pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine (PPSV23) has been recommended for many years in the United States for all adults ≥65 years of age. In September 2014, the United States Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP) began also recommending PCV13 for all adults ≥65 years of age . The ACIP revision was prompted by results from the CAPiTA trial. Current recommendations for individuals ≥65 years of age who have not previously received either PCV13 or PPSV23 are to administer PCV13 followed 6 to 12 months later by PPSV23 (algorithm 1). In patients who have already received PPSV23, at least one year should elapse before they are given PCV13. (See "Pneumococcal vaccination in adults", section on 'Indications'.)
Comparison among multivariate risk models to estimate 10-year CVD risk (February 2015)
A number of multivariate risk models have been developed for estimating the risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) events in apparently healthy, asymptomatic individuals. The performance of five risk scores (1998 Framingham, 2002 ATP III, 2008 Framingham, Reynolds Risk Score, and 2013 AHA/ACC score) was evaluated by generating an estimated 10-year CVD risk within a racially-diverse population aged 50 to 74 years without baseline evidence of CVD or diabetes . When comparing the predicted and observed rates of CVD over 10 years, four of the five risk scores significantly overestimated the 10-year CVD risk (between 25 and 115 percent), while the Reynolds Risk score slightly underestimated risk (3 percent underestimation). The potential for overestimation of risk should be recognized in the discussion of risk and the decision-making process regarding therapies aimed at primary prevention. (See "Estimation of cardiovascular risk in an individual patient without known cardiovascular disease", section on 'Comparison among different risk scores'.)
Varenicline for smokers who are not ready to be abstinent (February 2015)
Varenicline may be helpful for patients who smoke and who are not ready to commit to immediate cessation. A randomized trial compared varenicline with placebo for 24 weeks in 1510 smokers who were not planning to make a quit attempt within the next month but were willing to reduce smoking and attempt quitting within the next three months . Compared with placebo, patients in the varenicline group had a higher continuous abstinence rate at 21 through 24 weeks and at 52 weeks. (See "Pharmacotherapy for smoking cessation in adults", section on 'Administration'.)
Impact of prolonged sedentary time (February 2015)
A 2015 systematic review and meta-analysis adds to the mounting evidence of the negative effects of prolonged sedentary time . The review found that prolonged sedentary time was associated with increased risk for mortality, cardiovascular disease, diabetes, and cancer. The increased risks were not mitigated by participation in physical exercise, though the effects were more pronounced at lower levels of physical activity. (See "The benefits and risks of exercise", section on 'Physical inactivity and health'.)
Additional causes of smoking mortality (February 2015)
In addition to the well-established adverse effects of smoking, a study using pooled data from five large cohorts found that, compared with never smokers, current smokers had an increased risk of mortality from renal failure, intestinal ischemia, hypertensive heart disease, any infection, breast cancer, and prostate cancer . The study also found an increased risk of mortality from respiratory illnesses in addition to those previously recognized (pneumonia, influenza, COPD, and pulmonary fibrosis). The risk of mortality decreased with increasing duration of smoking cessation. (See "Benefits and risks of smoking cessation", section on 'Other'.)
New human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine targets nine HPV types (February 2015)
Infection with human papillomavirus (HPV) types 16, 18, 31, 33, 45, 52, and 58 is implicated in approximately 90 percent of invasive cervical cancers. The US Food and Drug Administration has approved Gardasil 9, a 9-valent HPV vaccine that targets those seven HPV types in addition to the two types associated with genital warts (6 and 11), for the prevention of HPV-related disease . In a trial that included approximately 14,000 females randomly assigned to receive the 9-valent or quadrivalent HPV vaccine, immune responses with the two vaccines were comparable for the HPV types targeted by both (6, 11, 16, and 18). Additionally, the 9-valent HPV vaccine was 97 percent effective for preventing precancerous and cancerous lesions of the cervix, vagina, and vulva associated with the other targeted HPV types (31, 33, 45, 52, and 58). Safety profiles were overall similar. We favor the 9-valent HPV vaccine for its broader HPV type coverage.
Routine immunization should be offered to boys and girls aged 11 to 12, but can be administered as early as nine years of age. Catch-up vaccination should be offered for males between the ages of 13 to 21 and females between 13 to 26 years who have not been previously vaccinated. Repeat vaccination with the 9-valent vaccine is likely not warranted for individuals who have completed a series with a different HPV vaccine.
Lower HMG CoA reductase activity increases risk of diabetes (January 2015)
A Mendelian randomization study found that decreased genetic HMG CoA reductase activity is associated with a higher risk of type 2 diabetes, such that at least some of the risk of diabetes seen with statin therapy appears to be due to its inhibition of HMG CoA reductase . Since this inhibition is thought responsible for the primary efficacy of statin therapy, this finding means that any effective statin will probably increase the risk of diabetes . (See "Statins: Actions, side effects, and administration", section on 'Diabetes mellitus'.)
Tamoxifen prevention in women at high risk of breast cancer (January 2015)
Women at an increased risk of breast cancer are often prescribed a five-year course of tamoxifen for cancer prevention, but whether the benefits of tamoxifen extend beyond the course of treatment has not been clear. A new study suggests that tamoxifen confers long-term breast cancer prevention beyond the initial five years of treatment . The International Breast Cancer Intervention Study I (IBIS-1) assigned over 7000 high risk women to tamoxifen 20 mg daily or placebo for five years. With 16 years of follow-up, tamoxifen significantly reduced the risk of breast cancer, with risk extending beyond the first ten years of follow-up. The risk reduction was primarily seen for hormone receptor-positive breast cancer. (See "Selective estrogen receptor modulators and aromatase inhibitors for breast cancer prevention", section on 'Tamoxifen'.)
Breast density and supplemental screening following mammography (May 2015)
Although multiple states in the United States have passed legislation requiring clinicians to inform women of increased breast density when found on mammography and the potential need for supplemental ultrasound screening, indications for supplemental ultrasound remain uncertain. A prospective cohort study, using data from the U.S. Breast Cancer Surveillance Consortium (BCSC), evaluated breast density and five-year breast cancer risk (by the BCSC risk model) as factors associated with interval cancer following a negative screening mammogram . A high interval cancer rate (invasive cancer occurring 12 months or less after a normal mammogram) was defined as more than 1 case per 1000 mammograms. Women with heterogeneously dense breasts and a five-year breast cancer risk of 2.5 percent or greater, and women with extremely dense breasts and a five-year risk of 1.67 percent or greater, had a high interval cancer risk and were at highest risk of advanced stage disease. However, interval cancer rates were not found to be high for more than 50 percent of women with heterogeneously or extremely dense breasts. Combining increased breast density with an increased five-year risk could identify subsets of women who would be more likely to benefit from supplemental screening. (See "Breast imaging for cancer screening: Mammography and ultrasonography", section on 'Supplemental screening'.)
Interval for follow-up after benign breast biopsy (April 2015)
The appropriate interval for follow-up of patients with a benign biopsy of a palpable breast mass or radiographic breast abnormality is controversial. A study using the Breast Cancer Surveillance Consortium registry compared short-interval (3 to 8 months) with longer-interval (9 to 18 months) follow-up breast imaging screening after 17,631 benign core breast biopsies . Similar rates of cancer were later detected with no significant differences in stage, tumor size, or nodal status for the short-interval and longer-interval follow-up groups. In this study, it was not determined if the initial benign biopsies in women with subsequently detected cancers represented false negatives. Short interval follow-up is likely unnecessary in women with benign breast biopsy, but if there is any uncertainty about the biopsy results, we follow-up after six months. (See "Clinical manifestations and diagnosis of a palpable breast mass", section on 'Diagnosis'.)
Interim guidelines for cervical cancer screening with primary HPV testing (February 2015)
Interim guidelines from the Society of Gynecologic Oncology and the American Society for Colposcopy and Cervical Pathology are the first US guidelines to suggest primary human papillomavirus (HPV) testing as an option for cervical cancer screening in women starting at age 25 years (table 6) . This option is provided based on a randomized trial comparing primary HPV testing with cytology (Pap test) or co-testing (Pap test and HPV testing) . Among women ≥25 years, primary HPV testing was more sensitive for the detection of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) 3 or greater. However, the study is limited by having only three years of follow-up, use of a surrogate outcome (CIN3 rather than cancer), and highly structured follow up protocols that may not be feasible in practice. Given these limitations, we continue to suggest that women age <30 years not be screened for cervical cancer with primary HPV testing. (See "Screening for cervical cancer", section on 'Primary HPV testing'.)
Breast cancer mortality differences by race may reflect tumor biology (February 2015)
Breast cancer incidence in the United States is slightly lower in black women than white women, but breast cancer mortality is higher in blacks. Greater breast cancer mortality among black women may be due to differences in screening, cancer treatment, tumor biology, or comorbidity. In an observational study, based on the SEER database, of nearly 375,000 women with invasive breast cancer followed for a median of 38 months, black women were less likely to be diagnosed with stage 1 disease, and those with small-sized tumors were more likely to die of breast cancer than white women, after adjustment for estrogen receptor status . This adds to emerging evidence that greater breast cancer mortality among black women relates, at least in part, to intrinsic differences in breast tumor biology between black and white women. (See "Screening for breast cancer: Strategies and recommendations", section on 'Epidemiology'.)
Supplemental ultrasound screening for women with dense breasts and normal mammography (January 2015)
In the United States, multiple states have passed legislation that advises supplemental whole breast ultrasound screening for women with dense breast tissue on mammography. A modeling study estimated that, for women ages 50 to 74 with heterogeneously or extremely dense breasts and a negative mammogram, supplemental ultrasound screening would cost more than $100,000 per quality adjusted life year (QALY) gained, and thus would not meet generally accepted thresholds for cost-effectiveness . Compared with mammography alone, for 1000 women screened biennially for 25 years, supplemental ultrasound was predicted to prevent 0.36 additional cancer deaths, and lead to an additional 354 biopsies. To date, there have been no randomized trials in average-risk women comparing mammography alone with combination ultrasound and mammography. (See "Breast imaging for cancer screening: Mammography and ultrasonography", section on 'As adjunct to mammography for screening'.)
ADULT CARDIOVASCULAR MEDICINE
Oxygen not helpful in normoxic STEMI patients (June 2015)
Small studies have raised the possibility of harm from supplemental oxygen in patients with ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI). In the AVOID study, 441 normoxic patients with confirmed STEMI were randomly assigned to either supplemental oxygen (8 L/min) or no oxygen . The study showed no improvement in the primary end point of a diminution in infarct size with oxygen and perhaps evidence of a larger infarct. For STEMI patients who are not hypoxic, we suggest not administering supplemental oxygen. (See "Overview of the acute management of ST elevation myocardial infarction", section on 'Oxygen'.)
Duration of dual antiplatelet therapy after coronary stenting (June 2015)
The optimal duration of dual antiplatelet therapy (DAPT) for patients who have received a drug-eluting intracoronary stent is not known. All randomized trials have found an increased rate of major bleeding and a lower rate of myocardial infarction with longer therapy. A 2015 meta-analysis confirmed a finding of an increase in all-cause mortality seen in some of the trials, although the magnitude of this increase was small . For patients who have tolerated 12 months of DAPT, we suggest continuing it for at least an additional 18 months. (See "Antiplatelet therapy after coronary artery stenting", section on 'Drug-eluting stents'.)
Vorapaxar particularly beneficial in patients with recent MI and diabetes (April 2015)
Patients with diabetes and myocardial infarction (MI) are at high risk of subsequent cardiovascular events. The impact of vorapaxar, an antiplatelet agent, on these high-risk individuals was evaluated in a subgroup analysis of the TRA 2P-TIMI 50 trial, which had previously shown benefit with this agent in a broad group of patients with atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease treated with at least one other antiplatelet drug (aspirin or clopidogrel) . Vorapaxar lowered the risk of cardiovascular events to a greater extent in patients with diabetes and a history of MI than those without diabetes. For patients with diabetes and a recent MI who cannot receive either ticagrelor or prasugrel (our preferred P2Y12 receptor blockers; used in combination with aspirin), and who are at low risk for bleeding, we suggest that vorapaxar be added to clopidogrel and aspirin. (See "Secondary prevention of cardiovascular disease", section on 'Vorapaxar'.)
PCI versus CABG in patients with stable coronary artery disease (March 2015)
For patients with multivessel coronary artery disease (CAD), the optimal revascularization strategy is not known, in part because prior studies have used older generation stents. Two studies, one a randomized trial (BEST)  and one observational , found that coronary artery bypass surgery (CABG), compared with percutaneous coronary intervention with newer generation stents, is associated with a lower rate of repeat revascularization and myocardial infarction but a higher rate of stroke. We prefer CABG for many patients with multivessel CAD. (See "Revascularization in patients with stable coronary artery disease: Coronary artery bypass graft surgery versus percutaneous coronary intervention", section on 'DES compared to CABG'.)
ADULT ENDOCRINOLOGY AND DIABETES
DPP-4 inhibitors for diabetes and cardiovascular safety (June 2015)
A number of trials have evaluated the cardiovascular effects of DPP-4 inhibitors. In a recent large trial, 14,735 patients with type 2 diabetes and established cardiovascular disease were randomly assigned to sitagliptin or placebo, in addition to other diabetes medications (predominantly metformin, sulfonylurea, insulin) . After a median follow-up of three years, there was no difference in the primary composite cardiovascular outcome (cardiovascular death, nonfatal myocardial infarction, nonfatal stroke, or hospitalization for unstable angina), individual components of the composite, or hospitalization rate for heart failure (3.1 percent in each group). Although these data are reassuring, longer-term clinical trials are needed to definitively assess the cardiovascular safety of DPP-4 inhibitors in patients with heart disease. In addition, there are no data on cardiovascular safety in lower-risk patients. With only modest glucose-lowering effectiveness and relative expense, we do not consider DPP-4 inhibitors as options for initial therapy in the majority of patients with type 2 diabetes. (See "Dipeptidyl peptidase 4 (DPP-4) inhibitors for the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus", section on 'Cardiovascular effects'.)
Menopausal hormone therapy and risk of ovarian cancer (March 2015)
There have been concerns that menopausal hormone therapy (MHT) may be associated with an increase in ovarian cancer risk, but data are conflicting. A meta-analysis of 52 epidemiologic studies including 21,488 postmenopausal women with ovarian cancer now suggests that there is a small excess risk of ovarian cancer with MHT . While the relative risk of ovarian cancer was greater in ever-users than never-users of MHT (RR 1.14), the calculated absolute excess risk associated with MHT was very low: five years of MHT use in women ages 50 to 54 years would result in about one additional ovarian cancer case per 1000 users and one ovarian cancer death per 1700 users. Given these low absolute risks, we do not consider ovarian cancer to be a major consideration when deciding to take MHT for symptomatic relief. (See "Menopausal hormone therapy: Benefits and risks", section on 'Ovarian cancer'.)
Long-term effect of antihypertensive therapy in diabetic patients (October 2014, MODIFIED March 2015)
A randomized trial and a meta-analysis have evaluated the treatment of hypertension in patients with diabetes.
●The ADVANCE trial randomly assigned 11,000 diabetic patients to a fixed combination of perindopril-indapamide or placebo for approximately four years. Patients in the perindopril-indapamide group had lower rates of cardiovascular mortality (3.8 versus 4.6 percent) and all-cause mortality (7.3 versus 8.5 percent). A post-trial, open-label cohort (8500 patients) were followed for an additional six years . Blood pressures between the treatment and placebo groups, which were different during the trial (135/74 versus 140/76 mmHg), became similar within six months of the trial completion and remained similar throughout the cohort phase. Compared with those originally assigned placebo, those who had received perindopril-indapamide had a lower death rate during the cohort phase (15.3 versus 16.7 percent), as well as a lower incidence of major cardiovascular events (13.3 versus 14.2 percent). Combining both the trial and cohort phases together (approximately 10 years of follow-up), all-cause mortality was lower among those in the treatment group. Thus, blood pressure lowering is associated with long-term benefits on mortality and cardiovascular disease in diabetic patients. (See "Treatment of hypertension in patients with diabetes mellitus", section on 'ADVANCE trial'.)
●A meta-analysis of 40 trials examined the effect of antihypertensive therapy in 100,354 diabetic patients . Follow-up ranged from six months to more than eight years, with most trials following patients for two years or longer. Compared with placebo, antihypertensive therapy reduced the rates of mortality, total cardiovascular disease, myocardial infarction, and stroke. For most outcomes, the benefit of antihypertensive therapy was limited to those whose initial systolic pressures were greater than 140 mmHg. The risk of stroke, but not other outcomes, was reduced by antihypertensive therapy in patients with lower initial systolic pressures. Some trials compared one antihypertensive drug with another. For most outcomes, no class of drugs was superior or inferior to the others. However, beta-blockers increased the risk of stroke compared with other agents. In general, the results of this meta-analysis support recommendations by UpToDate regarding the treatment of hypertension in diabetic patients. (See "Treatment of hypertension in patients with diabetes mellitus", section on 'Meta-analysis'.)
Characterizing treatment-induced neuropathy of diabetes (January 2015)
Treatment-induced neuropathy of diabetes (TIND) is a small fiber neuropathy that can occur in patients with chronic hyperglycemia who experience rapid improvement in glycemic control. The main clinical manifestations are severe pain and autonomic dysfunction. Although historically considered rare, data from a study of 954 patients referred to a tertiary care center for diabetic neuropathy evaluation suggest that TIND is more common than previously suspected . Defined by the acute onset of neuropathic pain or autonomic dysfunction within eight weeks of a large improvement in glycemic control (ie, a decrease in glycosylated hemoglobin A1C of ≥2 percentage points over three months), TIND was present in 104 patients (11 percent). The risk of developing TIND and the severity of neuropathic pain and autonomic dysfunction correlated with the magnitude of decrease in hemoglobin A1C. (See "Epidemiology and classification of diabetic neuropathy", section on 'Treatment-induced neuropathy of diabetes'.)
Glycemic control and mortality in type 1 diabetes mellitus (January 2015)
In a report from the Diabetes Control and Complications Trial (DCCT) and follow-up Epidemiology of Diabetes Interventions and Complications Study (EDIC), representing a mean follow-up period of 27 years (1429 patients), there was a modest reduction in all-cause mortality in patients with type 1 diabetes initially assigned to intensive insulin therapy (43 deaths in the intensive therapy group versus 64 in the conventional group) . The median A1C values for the intensive therapy and conventional therapy groups during the 6.5 year DCCT were 7.2 and 9.1 percent, respectively. However, the A1C levels equalized during the subsequent EDIC study. Thus, compared with conventional therapy, intensive insulin therapy for 6.5 years during the DCCT reduced the risk of mortality over at least the next 20 years, despite an absence of a difference in A1C values during the post-DCCT period. (See "Glycemic control and vascular complications in type 1 diabetes mellitus", section on 'Mortality'.)
ADULT INFECTIOUS DISEASE
Antimicrobial-resistant Shigella infections in the United States (June 2015)
Antimicrobial resistance in Shigella is an increasing problem in the United States. Fluoroquinolones are typically the antibiotic class of choice in adults, and azithromycin is often used if fluoroquinolone resistance is suspected or documented. Clusters of ciprofloxacin-resistant cases, likely introduced by international travelers with subsequent domestic spread, have been reported throughout the country, and isolates with decreased susceptibility to azithromycin have caused outbreaks and sporadic cases, predominantly among men who have sex with men (MSM) [51,52]. Scattered infections with extremely drug-resistant isolates that are ciprofloxacin-resistant and have decreased susceptibility to azithromycin have also been reported . These reports highlight the importance of obtaining susceptibility testing to ensure adequate efficacy of the chosen antimicrobial when managing shigellosis and emphasizing prevention measures, primarily hygiene practices around food preparation or consumption and oral or anal sex. (See "Shigella infection: Treatment and prevention in adults", section on 'Antimicrobial resistance' and "Shigella infection: Treatment and prevention in children", section on 'Antibiotic resistance'.)
Early versus deferred antiretroviral therapy in treatment-naive HIV-infected individuals (May 2015)
Trials have demonstrated that antiretroviral therapy (ART) improves morbidity and mortality in HIV-infected individuals with CD4 cell counts <350 cells/microL. The benefit of ART for those with higher CD4 cell counts had been suggested by observational data but had not previously been demonstrated in a randomized trial. In the START trial, 4685 HIV-infected adults who had not previously received ART and had a CD4 cell count >500 cells/microL were randomly assigned to initiate ART immediately or when the CD4 cell count declined to <350 cells/microL . After approximately three years of follow-up, an interim analysis found that the risk of the combined outcome of AIDS-related events, serious non-AIDS events (eg, major cardiovascular, renal and liver disease, and cancer), or death was reduced by 53 percent with immediate compared with deferred treatment (41 versus 86 events). Additional information is needed to better understand the benefit of early therapy on the specific, rather than the combined outcomes. Nevertheless, these preliminary data support guidelines in the United States that recommend ART initiation in all HIV-infected patients, regardless of CD4 cell count. (See "When to initiate antiretroviral therapy in HIV-infected patients", section on 'The START trial'.)
Persistence of Ebola virus in bodily fluids (May 2015)
Among survivors of the 2014-2015 Ebola outbreak in West Africa, infectious virus or viral RNA has been detected from several sites (eg, urine, semen, and aqueous humor) even after it is no longer detected in blood [55-57]. Although transmission from persistent virus at these sites is possible, the risk of transmission is not well established. As an example, a patient in West Africa had detectable viral RNA in his semen 199 days after symptom onset. There was apparent transmission of Ebola virus to one, but not another, of his sexual contacts. To prevent sexual transmission of Ebola virus, the Centers for Disease Control and World Health Organization suggest Ebola survivors refrain from all sexual activity (oral, anal, vaginal) until more information on the persistence of infectious virus in convalescent patients becomes available; condoms should be used if abstinence is not possible [58,59]. (See "Epidemiology and pathogenesis of Ebola virus disease", section on 'Risk of transmission through different body fluids'.)
Trends in infective endocarditis incidence in the United States (May 2015)
The epidemiology of infective endocarditis (IE) has changed over time because of changes in the prevalence of risk factors, as well as improved diagnostic tools and management. A study using the Nationwide Inpatient Sample database, which included 457,052 hospitalizations for IE in the United States between 2000 and 2011, found a steady increase in IE incidence over this time . The trends in hospitalization rates overall from 2000 to 2007 and from 2008 to 2011 were not significantly different, but there was a steeper increase in hospitalization rates for streptococcal IE, specifically, after 2007. It has been postulated that this reflects reduced antimicrobial IE prophylaxis after the American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association (ACC/AHA) recommended a narrower range of indications for prophylaxis in 2007. However, in the absence of controlled data, a causal connection is uncertain. Given the available evidence, we continue to recommend an approach to IE prophylaxis consistent with the ACC/AHA guidelines. (See "Epidemiology, risk factors, and microbiology of infective endocarditis", section on 'Epidemiology' and "Antimicrobial prophylaxis for bacterial endocarditis", section on 'Trends in endocarditis incidence'.)
Ocular syphilis in the United States (April 2015)
Ocular syphilis, a potentially sight-threatening form of neurosyphilis, has been reported more frequently among HIV-infected patients compared with those without HIV. It can occur at any time after initial infection and may be associated with rash. Ocular findings typically include uveitis or optic neuritis, and the diagnosis is supported by a reactive serologic test. In the United States, an outbreak of ocular syphilis has been reported in California and Washington since December 2014; the majority of cases were among HIV-infected men who have sex with men, and several cases resulted in blindness . (See "Epidemiology, clinical presentation, and diagnosis of syphilis in the HIV-infected patient", section on 'Neurosyphilis'.)
Interferon-free regimens to treat HCV in HIV/HCV coinfected patients (February 2015)
Patients coinfected with HIV and hepatitis C virus (HCV) traditionally had lower response rates to HCV treatment with peginterferon and ribavirin compared with individuals without HIV infection. However, with the use of direct-acting antiviral (DAA) agents in HCV treatment, HIV infection is no longer a negative predictor of response. In two studies of HIV/HCV genotype 1 coinfected individuals, sustained virological response rates to two interferon-free DAA regimens (ledipasvir-sofosbuvir or ombitasvir-paritaprevir-ritonavir and dasabuvir plus ribavirin) were greater than 90 percent, comparable to rates in populations infected with HCV alone [62,63]. The major consideration in HCV antiviral regimen selection for HIV/HCV coinfected patients is the potential for drug interactions between antiretroviral and HCV antiviral agents. (See "Treatment of hepatitis C virus infection in the HIV-infected patient", section on 'Genotype 1 infection'.)
Pneumonia and long-term cardiovascular risk (February 2015)
Community-acquired pneumonia has been associated with increased short-term risk of cardiac events. In two cohorts of community-dwelling adults, hospitalization for pneumonia was also associated with increased long-term risk of new-onset cardiovascular disease (myocardial infarction, cerebrovascular accident, or fatal coronary heart disease), even after adjusting for traditional cardiovascular risk factors . In one of the cohorts, the risk of cardiovascular events among patients with pneumonia was highest during the first year after hospitalization and remained higher than among controls through 10 years. In the other cohort, the risk of cardiovascular events was elevated during the first two years following pneumonia hospitalization, but not thereafter. (See "Prognosis of community-acquired pneumonia in adults", section on 'Association with cardiovascular events'.)
Oseltamivir for the treatment of influenza in adults (January 2015)
Oseltamivir has been demonstrated to shorten the duration of influenza symptoms and to reduce the duration of viral shedding. However, studies and meta-analyses have provided contradictory results regarding the effect of oseltamivir on influenza-related lower respiratory tract complications in healthy adults. A 2015 meta-analysis evaluated all manufacturer-sponsored randomized trials, published and unpublished, of oseltamivir for the treatment of influenza in adults . Among those with documented influenza, oseltamivir reduced the time to alleviation of all symptoms (median time 98 versus 123 hours), reduced lower respiratory tract complications requiring antibiotics, and reduced hospital admissions for any cause compared with placebo. In contrast to an earlier meta-analysis that aggregated study results and did not demonstrate a benefit with regards to complications, this meta-analysis pooled individual patient data from the trials, which is generally considered a more rigorous method . These results support our recommendations to use an antiviral agent such as oseltamivir in patients with confirmed or suspected influenza and severe illness or at high risk of complications. (See "Treatment of seasonal influenza in adults", section on 'Efficacy of oseltamivir'.)
Rapid nucleic acid amplification test for seasonal influenza (January 2015)
A rapid nucleic acid amplification test for influenza, the Alere i influenza A & B test, is available in several countries in Europe. In January 2015, the US Food and Drug Administration allowed use of the test in non-traditional laboratory sites, including physicians' offices, emergency rooms, health department clinics, and other healthcare facilities . This test uses a nasal swab sample and provides results (reports influenza A or B, but not subtypes) in as few as 15 minutes. It is performed on a small proprietary machine. Nucleic acid amplification tests are generally more sensitive than antigen and immunofluorescence techniques, which most other rapid influenza tests utilize. (See "Diagnosis of seasonal influenza in adults", section on 'Nucleic acid tests' and "Seasonal influenza in children: Clinical features and diagnosis", section on 'Approach to testing'.)
Intravenous peramivir for influenza (December 2014)
Peramivir was approved by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) in December 2014 for treating uncomplicated influenza infection in adults who have been ill for ≤2 days [68,69]. Peramivir is the first IV neuraminidase inhibitor to be approved by the FDA, although it has been in use in Japan and South Korea for several years. It is administered as a single intravenous dose of 600 mg. In a randomized trial, those who received peramivir had their influenza symptoms alleviated an average of 21 hours sooner and became afebrile approximately 12 hours sooner than those who received placebo. Patients who cannot receive zanamivir or oseltamivir (eg, those who cannot tolerate inhaled or enteral agents) should receive IV peramivir. Although the FDA has only approved IV peramivir for patients with uncomplicated influenza, we think it is also reasonable to use it for patients with severe influenza who cannot receive oral oseltamivir or inhaled zanamivir; in such patients, we would use either oseltamivir by a nasogastric tube or IV peramivir. (See "Treatment of seasonal influenza in adults", section on 'Efficacy of peramivir' and "Treatment of seasonal influenza in adults".)
ADULT NEPHROLOGY AND HYPERTENSION
Combination renin-angiotensin system inhibition in diabetic patients (June 2015)
Several randomized trials that directly compared dual versus single renin-angiotensin system inhibition in diabetic patients found that dual therapy produced no benefit and an increase in adverse effects. Findings are similar in a subsequent network meta-analysis . In this analysis in patients with diabetes and hypertension, dual therapy with an angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitor plus an angiotensin II receptor blocker (ARB) was superior to placebo in preventing end-stage renal disease, but monotherapy with either an ACE inhibitor or an ARB, also compared with placebo, produced similar benefits while dual therapy produced more adverse effects. Combination renin-angiotensin system inhibition with an ACE inhibitor and ARB or direct renin inhibitor is not recommended in diabetic patients. (See "Treatment of hypertension in patients with diabetes mellitus", section on 'Avoid combination renin-angiotensin system inhibition'.)
ADULT NEUROLOGY AND PSYCHIATRY
Amyloid PET imaging in adults with and without dementia (May 2015)
The clinical utility of amyloid positron emission tomography (PET) imaging in the evaluation of patients with cognitive impairment or dementia is uncertain, in part because beta-amyloid can be demonstrated in the brains of adults with normal cognition as well as in those with clinical Alzheimer disease (AD). In a meta-analysis of 55 studies of amyloid PET in adults without dementia (n = 8694), the prevalence of a positive amyloid PET scan increased with age, ranging from 10 percent in 50-year-olds with normal cognition to 44 percent in 90-year-olds with normal cognition . By contrast, among individuals with a clinical diagnosis of AD, the prevalence of a positive amyloid PET scan decreased with advancing age, ranging from 93 percent in 50-year-olds to 79 percent in 90-year-olds . Although several amyloid PET tracers have been approved by regulatory bodies, their high cost, in addition to their low specificity as stand-alone tests, have thus far limited use beyond research settings. (See "Neuroimaging studies in the evaluation of dementia", section on 'Indications for functional and molecular imaging'.)
Late-onset generalized anxiety disorder (April 2015)
Generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) is typically thought of as having an early onset, rarely first presenting in older adults. A recent, prospective study of a large, representative sample of French adults aged 65 years and over, who did not meet criteria for GAD at baseline, found the disorder to have an incidence of 8.4 percent over the subsequent 12-year period . In 80 percent of cases, the occurrence was the first episode of GAD. Predictors of incident GAD included being female, poverty, recent adverse life events, chronic physical or mental illness, and parental/familial factors. Increased awareness and recognition of late-onset GAD would enable more patients to receive effective treatments for the disorder, including cognitive behavioral therapy and selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors. (See "Generalized anxiety disorder: Epidemiology, pathogenesis, clinical manifestations, course, assessment, and diagnosis", section on 'Course'.)
Treatment of extracranial carotid or vertebral artery dissection (March 2015)
Antithrombotic therapy with either anticoagulation or antiplatelet drugs has long been used as treatment for ischemic stroke and transient ischemic attack (TIA) caused by cervical arterial dissection, but the two therapies had never been compared in a randomized trial. This situation changed with publication of the open-label, assessor-blind CADISS pilot trial, which enrolled 250 subjects with extracranial carotid or vertebral dissection and randomly assigned them to antiplatelet or anticoagulant treatment for three months [74,75]. At the end of this period, there was no significant difference between the two treatment groups; ipsilateral ischemic stroke occurred in 3 of 126 patients (2 percent) in the antiplatelet group and 1 of 124 patients (1 percent) in the anticoagulant group. There were no deaths in either group and one major bleeding event in the anticoagulation group.
Because of the low stroke rate and rarity of outcome events, the CADISS trial was not able to establish which treatment is superior. However, in the absence of a clear advantage for anticoagulation, most UpToDate authors now favor aspirin over anticoagulation for treating cervical artery dissection because it is less complicated to administer and generally safer. However, some experts prefer anticoagulation rather than aspirin in this setting. Antithrombotic treatment must be delayed until 24 hours after thrombolytic therapy but can be started immediately for patients who are not treated with thrombolytic therapy. (See "Spontaneous cerebral and cervical artery dissection: Treatment and prognosis", section on 'Antithrombotic therapy'.)
Warning about use of non-prescription asthma treatments (April 2015)
The US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) released a consumer warning about the potential health risks of over-the-counter (OTC) homeopathic products for asthma . The efficacy and safety of OTC products are not evaluated by the FDA. In addition, there is evidence that some non-prescription therapies, such as racemic epinephrine inhaler (sold as Asthmanefrin) and systemic ephedrine (sold as Bronkaid and Primatene tablets), are less effective than standard therapies for asthma and have a higher rate of side effects. Thus, OTC products are not recommended for the routine care of asthma, particularly acute asthma symptoms. These warnings are an important reminder for clinicians to ask their patients about use of OTC products. (See "Asthma in children younger than 12 years: Rescue treatment for acute symptoms", section on 'Nonstandard therapies' and "Alternative and experimental agents for the treatment of asthma", section on 'Risks associated with inhaled epinephrine' and "Alternative and experimental agents for the treatment of asthma", section on 'Homeopathic agents' and "Homeopathy", section on 'Specific diseases'.)
Negative D-dimer does not predict recurrence risk in unprovoked VTE (January 2015)
Indefinite anticoagulation is preferred in patients with a first episode of unprovoked venous thromboembolism (VTE). The D-dimer assay has been proposed as a test to identify patients in whom anticoagulant therapy may be safely discontinued. However, a prospective study that measured the VTE recurrence rate in 319 patients with a first episode of unprovoked VTE who had two consecutive negative D-dimer levels does not support this indication for d-dimer testing . The first level was drawn following completion of a standard course of anticoagulant therapy and the second after one month off anticoagulation. The two year recurrence rate was 7 percent per patient-year, with higher rates reported in men (10 percent per patient year) compared with women (5 percent per patient year). These rates are sufficiently high that they support the current recommendation of indefinite anticoagulation in this population; D-dimer measurements do not appear to be useful in identifying candidates for more limited treatment. (See "Rationale and indications for indefinite anticoagulation in patients with venous thromboembolism", section on 'Elevated D-dimer'.)
Possible association of giant cell arteritis with varicella zoster virus (March 2015)
The etiology of giant cell arteritis (GCA) remains unknown, although various infectious causes have been considered as triggering events. One of the largest studies to evaluate the relationship between varicella zoster virus (VZV) and GCA included temporal artery (TA) biopsies from 82 pathologically-confirmed GCA patients and 13 TA biopsies from healthy controls . VZV antigen was found in 74 percent of pathologically-confirmed GCA TAs versus 8 percent of normal TAs. The majority of biopsies showing GCA contained VZV antigen in skip areas that correlated with adjacent GCA pathology. However, direct pathogenetic evidence of a causal role of VZV in GCA is lacking. (See "Pathogenesis of giant cell (temporal) arteritis", section on 'Etiology and pathogenesis'.)
Relative efficacy of pharmacologic interventions for knee osteoarthritis (February 2015)
A large network meta-analysis of 137 trials involving over 33,000 patients with knee osteoarthritis (OA) compared the relative efficacy of available treatments for knee OA . All treatments, except acetaminophen, showed a clinically significant improvement from baseline pain. Intraarticular (IA) hyaluronic acid was found to be superior to oral and IA placebo, acetaminophen, celecoxib, and naproxen but not to ibuprofen, diclofenac, or IA glucocorticoids for pain relief. There also appeared to be a relative effect of IA administration when compared with oral medications, which was driven by a large placebo effect of IA injections. These findings are limited by the short-term follow-up period of three months as well as the use of indirect comparisons. (See "Treatment of osteoarthritis resistant to initial pharmacologic therapy", section on 'Comparison with intraarticular glucocorticoids'.)
Use of venlafaxine during early pregnancy and risk of birth defects (June 2015)
Venlafaxine is often used as an alternative to selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors for treating antenatal depression, but the risk of birth defects with venlafaxine is not clear due to inconsistent findings across small observational studies. A study of national registries from multiple countries identified infants who were exposed to venlafaxine during the first trimester (n>2700) and infants who were not exposed (n>2,100,000); the analyses controlled for several potential confounding factors, such as maternal age, smoking, diabetes, and use of other medications (eg, antiepileptics) . The risk of major birth defects was comparable for the two groups, as was the specific risk for cardiac defects. However, this study did not address other perinatal risks, such as preterm birth or hypertension, which have been associated with venlafaxine in other studies. (See "Risks of antidepressants during pregnancy: Drugs other than selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors", section on 'Teratogenicity'.)
Expectant management of mild preeclampsia near term (June 2015)
The optimum time for delivery of women with preeclampsia without features of severe disease and stable maternal and fetal conditions at 34 to 36 weeks of gestation is uncertain. The recent randomized HYPITAT-II trial confirmed findings from observational studies showing that most patients with late-onset mild preeclampsia managed expectantly will reach term without progressing to severe disease or developing an adverse outcome . Newborns benefited from the extra time in utero: the rate of respiratory distress syndrome was 70 percent less with expectant management compared with immediate delivery. Mild preeclampsia with onset at 34 to 36 weeks can be managed expectantly to enable further fetal growth and maturation. Delivery is indicated at 37 weeks. (See "Preeclampsia: Management and prognosis", section on 'Preeclampsia without features of severe disease'.)
Gestational age apps (June 2015)
Electronic techniques, such as apps available for download to smart phones, are generally more accurate for determining gestational age than mechanical wheels. However, a high proportion of gestational age apps are also inaccurate . Clinicians and patients should be aware of this possibility when using a gestational age app, and clinicians should test the accuracy of the app they use. UpToDate provides calculators that determine the estimated date of delivery and current gestational age (calculator 1 and calculator 2). (See "Prenatal assessment of gestational age and estimated date of delivery", section on 'Calculator'.)
Nicotine replacement therapy during pregnancy (May 2015)
Cigarette smoking during pregnancy is associated with adverse pregnancy outcomes. Nicotine replacement therapy has had limited use in pregnant women because of concerns regarding potential adverse fetal effects and limited evidence supporting efficacy. In a retrospective study of nearly 200,000 children born in the United Kingdom, the rates of major congenital anomalies were not statistically different among infants of women using nicotine replacement therapy, women who smoked, and women who did not use either . System-specific analysis reported an increased risk of respiratory anomalies in the nicotine replacement-exposed children, but the absolute risk was 3 per 1000 births, and based on 10 exposed cases out of 157 children with respiratory anomalies. Given the known benefits of smoking cessation during pregnancy, nicotine replacement therapy appears to be a reasonable treatment option for pregnant women who wish to stop smoking. (See "Cigarette smoking and pregnancy", section on 'Nicotine replacement'.)
Iron supplementation in pregnancy (April 2015)
The total maternal iron requirement associated with pregnancy is about 1000 mg. For this reason, many clinicians prescribe a prenatal vitamin with iron for pregnant women. In a 2015 systematic review for the US Preventive Services Task Force, routine iron supplementation in pregnancy resulted in a 50 to 80 percent reduction in the frequency of iron deficiency anemia at term, but effects on other pregnancy outcomes were inconsistent . We suggest prenatal vitamins with iron for pregnant women for prevention of maternal iron deficiency anemia. (See "Nutrition in pregnancy".)
False positive Down syndrome screening tests (April 2015)
Noninvasive prenatal Down syndrome screening using cell free DNA results in lower false positive and false negative rates than conventional aneuploidy screening tests. In a recent study of Down syndrome screening in an unselected population including almost 16,000 women, the false positive rates of cell free DNA and conventional screening were 0.1 and 5 percent, respectively, and false negative rates were 0 and 21 percent, respectively . False positive results can be due to factors such as maternal mosaicism, maternal tumors, maternal copy number variants, vanishing twins, confined placental mosaicism, or a failure of the complex bioinformatics necessary to generate a result [86-93]. Despite the low false positive rate with cell free DNA screening, confirmatory diagnostic testing (genetic amniocentesis or chorionic villus sampling) is mandatory after a screen positive result. (See "Noninvasive prenatal testing using cell-free nucleic acids in maternal blood", section on 'Trisomy 21, 18, 13'.)
Safety of inhaled long-acting beta agonist/glucocorticoid for asthma during pregnancy (February 2015)
An important clinical question for pregnant women with asthma is whether using a combination long-acting beta-agonist (LABA) plus inhaled glucocorticoid confers an increased risk for adverse fetal outcomes, compared with monotherapy using a higher dose of the inhaled glucocorticoid. In a study of 1302 pregnant women with asthma, the risk for a major congenital malformation was not increased when a LABA plus low dose inhaled glucocorticoid was compared with a medium dose inhaled glucocorticoid, or when a LABA plus medium-dose inhaled glucocorticoid was compared with a high-dose inhaled glucocorticoid . (See "Management of asthma during pregnancy", section on 'Long-acting beta-adrenergic agents'.)
Target diastolic blood pressure in pregnancy (February 2015)
In pregnant women with chronic (preexistent) or gestational hypertension, the effect of less-tight versus tight control of hypertension on pregnancy complications is unclear. A randomized trial that assigned pregnant women with gestational or chronic hypertension to diastolic blood pressure treatment targets of 85 or 100 mmHg reported similar maternal, fetal, and neonatal outcomes in both groups . More women in the 100 mmHg target group developed severe hypertension, although this was not associated with an increase in transient ischemic attack or stroke. The trial was not powered to exclude a clinically important increase in fetal growth restriction in the 85 mmHg target group. For these reasons, we continue to suggest a diastolic pressure target of 90 to 100 mmHg for pregnant women with hypertension without end-organ damage. (See "Management of hypertension in pregnant and postpartum women", section on 'Blood pressure goal'.)
Timing of antiretroviral initiation during pregnancy (January 2015)
The risk of HIV transmission from an infected mother to her infant is proportional to the level of maternal viremia at delivery. Among women not already taking an antiretroviral regimen, viral suppression at delivery is more likely when a regimen is initiated earlier during gestation. In a large US cohort of antiretroviral-naïve HIV-infected women who initiated a combination antiretroviral regimen during pregnancy, a detectable viral load at delivery was documented in 13 percent overall, but in 24 percent of those who initiated the regimen during the third trimester . This supports our recommendation to initiate antiretroviral therapy promptly in treatment-naïve pregnant women with advanced HIV disease or CD4 cell count th week of gestation for HIV-infected pregnant women with higher CD4 cell counts. (See "Use of antiretroviral medications in pregnant HIV-infected patients and their infants in resource-rich settings", section on 'When to initiate antiretroviral medications during pregnancy'.)
No change to recommendations for pain medicine use in pregnancy (January 2015)
Studies of pain medicine use by pregnant women have suggested associations between prescription nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) and the risk of miscarriage, the use of acetaminophen and subsequent childhood attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), and the use of opioids and the development of fetal neural tube defects. A 2015 US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) Drug Safety Communication has found methodologic limitations to these studies and inconclusive results regarding NSAIDs and acetaminophen use . Further investigation is needed regarding maternal opioid use and the risk of fetal neural tube defects. It is always advisable for pregnant women to avoid medications that are not clearly needed. However, specific recommendations regarding analgesic use need not change based on this current analysis. (See "Initial prenatal assessment and first trimester prenatal care", section on 'Treatment of pain and fever'.)
PEDIATRICS: GENERAL PEDIATRICS
Updated recommendations for pediatric head lice (May 2015)
Pediculosis capitis is a common condition that can lead to physical discomfort and social stigmatization. An update to the 2010 clinical report on head lice published by the American Academy of Pediatrics incorporates new therapies (spinosad and topical ivermectin), clarifies diagnosis and treatment protocols, and provides guidance for the management of children with pediculosis capitis in the school setting . Examples of major points in the update include recommendations that no child should be excluded from school because of head lice or nits and that pyrethroids remain reasonable first-line therapies for primary treatment of pediculosis capitis in communities where resistance to pyrethroids is unproven. (See "Pediculosis capitis", section on 'Pediculicide selection'.)
Diagnostic accuracy of serial ultrasounds for pediatric appendicitis (April 2015)
In pediatric patients whose initial ultrasound is equivocal for the diagnosis of appendicitis and who have persistent findings, repeat physical examination and a second ultrasound has good diagnostic accuracy and can markedly reduce the use of computed tomography (CT). A prospective observational study of 294 children undergoing acute evaluation for abdominal pain (38 percent with appendicitis) evaluated a protocol stratifying children into three paths: serial physical examination, surgical consultation, and repeat ultrasound if the initial ultrasound was equivocal; discharge home if the initial ultrasound showed a normal appendix; and surgical consultation if the initial ultrasound was positive for appendicitis . This strategy, consistent with our approach, achieved a sensitivity of 97 percent and a specificity of 91 percent; CT was performed in four patients. (See "Acute appendicitis in children: Diagnostic imaging", section on 'Imaging approach'.)
Early introduction of peanuts in high-risk infants (March 2015)
Previous guidelines recommended delayed introduction of highly allergenic solid foods (eg, eggs, peanuts, tree nuts, dairy products other than cow's milk, fish, and shellfish) for the purpose of preventing allergic disease in high-risk infants. However, evidence from observational studies suggested this practice was not effective and may lead to an increased incidence of food allergies.
The Learning Early about Peanut Allergy (LEAP) trial is the first randomized trial to show benefit of early introduction of a major food allergen . In this study, introduction of peanut at 4 to 11 months of age rather than avoidance until 60 months of age in children at high risk for peanut allergy due to severe eczema and/or egg allergy decreased the risk of developing peanut allergy. The rate of peanut allergy in the consumption group compared with the avoidance group was 1.9 versus 13.7 percent in children who were skin prick test-negative, and 10.6 versus 35.3 percent in children who were skin prick test-positive (wheal 1 to 4 mm). Exclusion criteria included a skin prick test wheal >4 mm or a positive baseline oral food challenge to peanut.
These findings indicate that past recommendations to delay introduction of highly allergenic foods were appropriately rescinded. Interim guidance regarding peanut introduction in infants with manifestations of atopic disease similar to those in the LEAP study is given in a consensus communication by an international group of allergy organizations . (See "Introducing formula and solid foods to infants at risk for allergic disease", section on 'Introduction of solid foods to high-risk infants'.)
National and ethnic variability in head circumference standards (March 2015)
The World Health Organization (WHO) Child Growth Standards were developed with data from the WHO Multicenter Growth Reference Study (MGRS) to describe normal growth in children younger than five years of age. However, it may be inappropriate to use a single head circumference standard for children from different countries or ethnic groups. A systematic review compared the mean head circumferences from the WHO MGRS with the mean head circumferences from a variety of studies in 55 countries or ethnic groups . The mean head circumferences in some groups were sufficiently different from those of the MGRS that use of the WHO growth standards would result in misclassification of microcephaly or macrocephaly. When available, local head circumference standards may be preferable to the WHO growth standards. (See "Microcephaly in infants and children: Etiology and evaluation", section on 'Head circumference charts' and "Macrocephaly in infants and children: Etiology and evaluation", section on 'Head circumference charts'.)
Azithromycin and infantile pyloric stenosis (March 2015)
Treatment with erythromycin during the first few weeks of life is an established risk factor for developing infantile hypertrophic pyloric stenosis (IHPS). A large study further defines the magnitude of that risk, and reveals that azithromycin also is a risk factor for IHPS. In a retrospective cohort of more than one million infants, the risk of developing IHPS was increased more than ten-fold for exposure to erythromycin or azithromycin during the first two weeks of life, and more than three-fold for exposure between two and six weeks of age . Exposure after six weeks of age was not associated with IHPS risk. (See "Infantile hypertrophic pyloric stenosis", section on 'Macrolide antibiotics'.)
Morphine is not more effective than ibuprofen for post-tonsillectomy pain in children (March 2015)
There is growing evidence that opioid medication should not be used as first-line analgesic therapy for post-tonsillectomy pain, particularly in children with underlying obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). A randomized trial found ibuprofen and acetaminophen to be as effective as morphine and acetaminophen for postoperative pain management in children undergoing tonsillectomy for OSA . In addition, children treated with morphine had increased episodes of postoperative desaturation compared with baseline, whereas those who received ibuprofen had improvement in oxygen saturation postoperatively. Caution should be used in prescribing opioids post-tonsillectomy in patients with underlying OSA. (See "Tonsillectomy (with or without adenoidectomy) in children: Postoperative care and complications", section on 'Pain'.)
Strict cognitive rest associated with more symptoms in children with concussions (February 2015)
Strict cognitive rest, including avoidance of reading, video games, loud music, and screen time (computer, tablet, television, or smart phone), limitation of social activities, and absence from school, has been advocated as a primary treatment for pediatric concussion. However, evidence for this approach is sparse. In a trial of 99 patients aged 11 to 22 years who were diagnosed with a concussion after pediatric emergency department evaluation (36 percent with loss of consciousness), all subjects reduced physical activity and one group was assigned to strict cognitive rest for five days while the other was assigned to usual care (one to two days of rest followed by gradual return to full cognitive activities) . Strict cognitive rest was associated with significantly more daily reported postconcussive symptoms during the 10 days of follow-up, while there were no differences in neurocognitive function or balance outcomes at three and 10 days after injury. Thus, strict cognitive rest was harmful in this trial. We suggest an individualized approach to cognitive rest, in which patients are instructed to avoid mental activities that worsen symptoms and are followed closely by a clinician with expertise in managing concussions. (See "Concussion in children and adolescents: Management", section on 'Cognitive rest'.)
Oat cereal for thickening infant bottle feeds (February 2015)
For healthy infants with problematic gastroesophageal reflux who are bottle-fed, thickening feeds with infant cereal slightly improves symptoms. Although rice cereal has traditionally been used for this purpose, oat cereal is now preferred because of concerns about possible contamination of rice cereal with arsenic [106-108]. The US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is investigating to determine if there are clinically significant traces of arsenic in rice cereal. (See "Gastroesophageal reflux in infants", section on 'Thickening feeds'.)
Bronchodilators not routinely recommended for bronchiolitis in infants and children (January 2015)
In November 2014, the American Academy of Pediatrics released updated guidelines for the diagnosis, management, and prevention of bronchiolitis . The 2014 guideline recommends against the administration of inhaled albuterol or epinephrine in the treatment of bronchiolitis; the previous guideline (2006) included a trial of bronchodilators as an option. We agree that bronchodilators should not be used routinely in the treatment of bronchiolitis and no longer suggest a trial of bronchodilators. Although bronchodilators may provide modest short-term clinical improvement, they do not affect overall outcome, may have adverse effects, and increase the cost of care.
While we no longer routinely suggest inhaled bronchodilators for infants and children with bronchiolitis, a one-time trial of inhaled bronchodilators may be warranted for infants and children with bronchiolitis and severe disease (eg, nasal flaring; retractions; grunting; respiratory rate >70 breaths per minute; dyspnea; or cyanosis) or respiratory failure. (See "Bronchiolitis in infants and children: Treatment; outcome; and prevention", section on 'Inhaled bronchodilators'.)
PEDIATRICS: DEVELOPMENTAL AND BEHAVIORAL PEDIATRICS
Sleep problems in children with ADHD (March 2015)
Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is associated with sleep problems, particularly initiating and maintaining sleep. A randomized trial suggests that ADHD symptoms improve with treatment of comorbid sleep problems . Children with ADHD and a moderate to severe sleep disorder were assigned to usual care or two sleep consultations and a follow-up phone call with a trained clinician; most of the children were receiving ADHD medications (predominantly methylphenidate). At the three- and six-month follow-up, children in the intervention group had modest improvements in ADHD symptoms and teacher-reported behavior. These findings highlight the importance of treating coexisting sleep problems in children with ADHD. (See "Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder in children and adolescents: Overview of treatment and prognosis", section on 'Treatment of coexisting conditions'.)
Effectiveness of pertussis vaccine in infants (May 2015)
Infants younger than 12 months have the highest incidence of pertussis and pertussis-related complications, including death. In a large case-control study, having received ≥1 dose of pertussis vaccine was associated with a 72 percent reduction in the risk of death and a 31 percent reduction in the risk of hospitalization in infants ≥6 weeks of age (the minimum age for the first dose of pertussis vaccine) . However, 64 percent of the deaths occurred in infants younger than six weeks. These findings highlight the importance of timely pertussis immunization for infants, as well as maternal immunization during pregnancy and immunization of the infant’s close contacts, as recommended by the Global Pertussis Initiative . (See "Diphtheria, tetanus, and pertussis immunization in infants and children 0 through 6 years of age", section on 'Efficacy and effectiveness' and "Immunizations during pregnancy", section on 'Tetanus, diphtheria, and pertussis vaccination' and "Bordetella pertussis infection in adolescents and adults: Treatment and prevention", section on 'Tdap booster'.)
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