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The following represent additions to UpToDate from the past six months that were considered by the editors and authors to be of particular interest. The most recent What's New entries are at the top of each subsection.
ADULT GENERAL INTERNAL MEDICINE
Treatment of degenerative meniscal tears (September 2016)
Acute meniscal tears often benefit from surgical treatment, but the appropriate management of chronic, degenerative tears, particularly in middle-aged adults, has been a source of debate. A recent trial randomly assigned 140 middle-aged adults (mean age 49.5) with a degenerative meniscal tear (and no evidence of osteoarthritis on magnetic resonance imaging [MRI]) to receive exercise therapy or partial meniscectomy . The trial found no clinically significant difference in knee function or pain at two years of follow-up. This finding is consistent with several other small randomized trials that have reported no clinically significant benefit from arthroscopic surgery in such patients. In the absence of persistent joint effusions or mechanical dysfunction, we suggest physical therapy as the initial management for middle-aged patients with degenerative meniscal tears. (See "Meniscal injury of the knee", section on 'Chronic degenerative meniscal injury'.)
Clinical manifestations of severe synthetic cannabinoid toxicity (July 2016)
Synthetic cannabinoids consist of a heterogeneous group of chemical compounds that act as agonists at cannabinoid receptors with 2 to 800 times the potency of delta-9 tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), the active component of cannabis (marijuana). They have emerged as a popular recreational drug in the United States and Europe. In an observational study of a multicenter, hospital-based registry of medical toxicology consultations, over two-thirds of 277 patients with single-agent exposure to synthetic cannabinoids had altered mental status including severe agitation, toxic psychosis, hallucinations, seizures, and coma . Rhabdomyolysis and acute kidney injury were present in approximately 5 percent of these patients. There were three deaths, including a 17-year-old adolescent with sudden death after first-time inhalational use. Thus, unlike cannabis, synthetic cannabinoids have significant potential to cause serious and life-threatening toxicity among recreational users. (See "Synthetic cannabinoids: Acute intoxication", section on 'Clinical manifestations'.)
Mediterranean compared with low-fat or low-carbohydrate diet for weight loss (May 2016)
The impact of specific dietary composition on weight change remains uncertain. In a systematic review of five trials with follow-up ≥12 months, a Mediterranean diet resulted in similar weight loss (-4.1 to -10.1 kg) as a low-carbohydrate diet (-4.7 to -7.7 kg) and greater weight loss than a low-fat diet (2.9 to -5 kg) . There was a similar reduction in lipid levels among the diets studied. The degree of adherence to the diet, irrespective of the particular macronutrient composition, is an important determinant of weight loss. We suggest choosing a diet or eating plan based upon patient preferences, which may improve long-term adherence. The diet should emphasize reductions in refined carbohydrates, processed meats, foods high in sodium and trans fat and higher intakes of fruits, nuts, fish, vegetables, and whole grains. (See "Obesity in adults: Dietary therapy", section on 'Weight loss diets'.)
Risks of oral ketoconazole for fungal skin and nail infections (May 2016)
In 2013, the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved label changes for oral ketoconazole tablets to remove the indications for fungal skin and nail infections because of serious risks of oral ketoconazole treatment (serious liver damage, adrenal gland problems, and harmful drug interactions). In May 2016, based upon an FDA safety review that found continued prescribing of oral ketoconazole for fungal skin and nail infections (including one treatment-related patient death), the FDA released a drug safety communication warning healthcare professionals to avoid prescribing oral ketoconazole for skin and nail infections . The risks of oral ketoconazole treatment for these indications outweigh the benefits. (See "Tinea versicolor (Pityriasis versicolor)", section on 'Other therapies'.)
Clinical practice guideline for chronic insomnia in adults (May 2016)
The American College of Physicians has released a new clinical practice guideline for the management of chronic insomnia in adults . The guideline recommends that all patients receive cognitive behavioral therapy for insomnia (CBT-I) as the initial treatment for chronic insomnia disorder. The guideline suggests that clinicians use a shared decision-making approach, including discussion of benefits, harms, and costs of short-term use of medications, to decide whether to add medication to CBT-I in patients with persistent symptoms. This approach is consistent with our preference for behavioral therapy over medication in most patients with chronic insomnia, particularly in older adults and patients with organ dysfunction, who are at increased risk for side effects from sedative-hypnotic drugs. (See "Treatment of insomnia", section on 'General approach'.)
New guidelines for the management of acne vulgaris (May 2016)
The American Academy of Dermatology released new guidelines of care for the management of acne vulgaris in adolescents and adults . The guidelines reviewed efficacy, regimens, and side effects of acne therapies and included an updated treatment algorithm for acne vulgaris. Specific areas covered by the guidelines include indications for evaluating patients for androgen excess, the role of topical antimicrobial and topical retinoid preparations, effective combination therapies, and optimal use of systemic antibiotics, hormonal therapies, and oral isotretinoin. (See "Treatment of acne vulgaris", section on 'General approach'.)
Declining use of feeding tubes in advanced dementia (August 2016)
Patients with advanced dementia commonly have eating problems in the final stages of illness, and caregivers are faced with decisions about whether to continue oral feeding by hand or place a long-term feeding tube. The available evidence fails to demonstrate any health benefits of tube feeding over ongoing hand feeding, and an increasing number of consensus-based guidelines advocate against feeding tube placement in this setting. In keeping with these recommendations, a recent study in the United States found that the proportion of nursing home residents with advanced dementia who received a feeding tube within one year of the onset of feeding problems decreased by approximately 50 percent between the years 2000 and 2014 . Advance care planning is critical in the management of patients with dementia and should include preparatory discussions about eating problems and other common complications encountered in the advanced stages of the disease. (See "Palliative care of patients with advanced dementia", section on 'Oral versus tube feeding'.)
Inactivated influenza vaccine for 2016-2017 season in the northern hemisphere (August 2016)
The effectiveness of seasonal influenza vaccines varies from season to season and is determined by a number of factors, including the match between circulating influenza strains and influenza strains in the vaccine. During the 2015-2016 influenza season, data from the United States Influenza Vaccine Effectiveness Network indicated that inactivated influenza vaccine (IIV) was 63 percent effective in preventing influenza in children, but live attenuated influenza vaccine (LAIV) was not effective . Findings of poor or lower than expected LAIV effectiveness were also noted during the 2013-2014 and 2014-2015 seasons in the United States. These findings are inconsistent with studies sponsored by the manufacturer and studies from other countries that found LAIV was effective (ranging from 46 to 58 percent) during the 2015-2016 season [9-12]; however, LAIV was less effective than IIV in all of these studies . In August 2016, the United States Centers for Disease Control and Prevention recommended that LAIV not be used during the 2016-2017 influenza season . While some countries have elected to continue using LAIV , we suggest IIV rather than LAIV for the 2016-2017 influenza season in the northern hemisphere. (See "Seasonal influenza in children: Prevention with vaccines", section on 'IIV versus LAIV' and "Seasonal influenza vaccination in adults", section on 'Choice of vaccine formulation'.)
Abrupt smoking cessation compared with gradual smoking reduction (June 2016)
Earlier evidence from randomized trials had suggested that, after a quit date is set, abstinence rates were equivalent for patients who reduced smoking prior to the quit date or stopped smoking abruptly on the quit date. However, more recent studies suggest that among smokers who plan to quit in the near future, quit rates are higher for patients who stop abruptly. The most recent randomized trial included 697 smokers in England and found that gradual smoking cessation (decreasing by 75 percent in the two weeks prior to quitting) was associated with decreased likelihood of abstinence at four weeks when compared with abrupt smoking cessation (39 versus 49 percent) . (See "Overview of smoking cessation management in adults", section on 'Setting a quit date'.)
Fruit and vegetable consumption and cardiovascular outcomes in China (April 2016)
Studies suggest that fruit and vegetable consumption is associated with a lower risk of coronary heart disease and stroke, but most of these studies had been conducted in Western Caucasian populations. A prospective cohort study of over 450,000 adults aged 30 to 79 years in China found that compared with little or no fresh fruit consumption, those who ate fresh fruit daily had decreased risk for cardiovascular death (hazard ratio [HR] 0.6), major coronary events (HR 0.66), ischemic stroke (HR 0.75), and hemorrhage stroke (HR 0.64) . There was a dose-response relationship between each outcome and the amount of fresh fruit consumed. Additionally, fresh fruit consumption was associated with decreased blood pressure and blood glucose levels. (See "Healthy diet in adults", section on 'Cardiovascular disease'.)
USPSTF recommendations for skin cancer screening (August 2016)
In July 2016, the United States Preventive Services Task Force (USPSTF) updated its statement on skin cancer screening and concluded that there is insufficient evidence to assess the balance of benefits and harms of screening for skin cancer in asymptomatic adults with a clinical visual skin examination . Although we agree with the USPSTF conclusion, we suggest that persons at higher risk for fatal melanoma (eg, white men 50 years of age and over), individuals with multiple moles or at least a few clinically atypical moles, and individuals with the “red hair phenotype” have a total body skin examination performed by a clinician who has had appropriate training in the identification of melanoma. (See "Screening and early detection of melanoma", section on 'Recommendations of expert groups'.)
USPSTF recommendations for colorectal cancer screening (July 2016)
The United States Preventive Services Task Force (USPSTF) issued new guidelines for colorectal cancer screening in average risk adults . The guidelines make a strong recommendation for screening, starting at age 50 years and continuing to age 75 for most patients, but in a departure from prior recommendations do not give preference for any one of seven screening test strategies over another. Options for screening are shown in a table. We agree with this screening test strategy based on shared decision making. Incorporating patient personal preferences may increase the likelihood that ongoing screening will occur. (See "Screening for colorectal cancer: Strategies in patients at average risk", section on 'USPSTF guidelines'.)
Blood test for colorectal cancer screening (April 2016)
In 2016, the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved a second-generation plasma assay for the detection of circulating methylated Septin 9 (Epi proColon 2.0) for colorectal cancer screening . This test detects Septin 9 DNA, which is hypermethylated in colorectal cancer but not in normal colon tissue. The test is intended for average-risk patients who refuse screening by guideline-recommended methods (eg, colonoscopy, sigmoidoscopy, fecal occult blood, or fecal DNA testing). A positive blood test should be followed up with a colonoscopy. However, there is no strong evidence of the effectiveness of screening for colorectal cancer with available plasma or serum markers. Until further evidence is available, we do not recommend blood tests for colorectal cancer screening. (See "Tests for screening for colorectal cancer: Stool tests, radiologic imaging and endoscopy", section on 'Blood-based markers'.)
ADULT ENDOCRINOLOGY AND DIABETES
Impact of adding activity trackers to behavioral weight loss programs (October 2016)
Wearable devices that monitor and provide feedback on physical activity and diet do not appear to provide additional benefit over standard behavioral weight loss interventions. In a 24-month trial of 470 overweight or obese adults who were randomly assigned to a standard intervention (self-monitoring of diet and exercise) or an enhanced intervention (use of a wearable device with a web interface to monitor diet and physical activity), there were similar improvements in body composition, fitness, physical activity, and diet, but the addition of a wearable device resulted in less weight loss than the standard behavioral weight loss program (3.5 versus 5.9 kg) . (See "Obesity in adults: Role of physical activity and exercise", section on 'Addition of "activity trackers"'.)
Postmenopausal estrogen and cognitive function (August 2016)
While limited observational and clinical trial data have suggested that early, but not late, postmenopausal exposure to estrogen provides protection against later cognitive impairment, a new randomized trial found no benefit of estrogen regardless of when it was started. In the Early versus Late Intervention Trial with Estradiol (ELITE), 643 postmenopausal women, stratified according to time since menopause (<6 years [early] versus >10 years [late]), received oral estradiol (with progesterone for women with a uterus) or placebo for a median of five years . When compared with placebo, estradiol, whether it was started early or late, had no effect on verbal memory, executive function, or global cognition. (See "Estrogen and cognitive function", section on 'Younger menopausal women'.)
Microvascular outcomes with empagliflozin in patients with type 2 diabetes (July 2016)
There are few trials evaluating microvascular outcomes in patients taking sodium-glucose co-transporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitors. Microvascular disease was a prespecified secondary outcome in a recent trial designed specifically to evaluate cardiovascular morbidity and mortality in patients with type 2 diabetes and established cardiovascular disease (CVD) . In this trial, 7028 patients with type 2 diabetes and established CVD were randomly assigned to empagliflozin or placebo once daily; the majority of patients were also taking metformin, antihypertensives, and lipid-lowering agents. Incident or worsening nephropathy occurred in 12.7 and 18.8 percent of patients in the empagliflozin and placebo groups, respectively. The reduction in nephropathy drove the improved composite microvascular endpoint (the initiation of retinal photocoagulation, vitreous hemorrhage, diabetes-related blindness, or incident or worsening nephropathy) for empagliflozin. The mechanism behind the reduction in incident or worsening nephropathy with empagliflozin is likely multifactorial, but is thought to be largely related to a direct renovascular effect of empagliflozin. Whether other SGLT2 inhibitors have similar renal effects is unknown. There have been reports of acute kidney injury, some requiring hospitalization and dialysis, in patients taking canagliflozin or dapagliflozin. (See "Management of persistent hyperglycemia in type 2 diabetes mellitus".)
Liraglutide and cardiovascular outcomes (June 2016)
Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) receptor agonists improve glycemic control. However, there are few studies assessing clinically important cardiovascular health outcomes.
●In one trial, 9340 patients with type 2 diabetes (mean A1C 8.7 percent) and underlying cardiovascular disease (prior myocardial infarction or stroke) or risk factors were randomly assigned to liraglutide or placebo . Many patients were taking metformin (76 percent), sulfonylureas (50 percent), and/or insulin (44 percent). After a median follow-up of 3.8 years, the primary endpoint (time to first occurrence of a composite endpoint [death from cardiovascular causes, nonfatal myocardial infarction, or nonfatal stroke]) occurred in fewer patients in the liraglutide group (13 versus 14.9 percent).
●In another trial of liraglutide versus placebo in 300 patients (59 percent with type 2 diabetes) with established heart failure and reduced left ventricular ejection fraction who were recently hospitalized, liraglutide had no significant effect on the composite outcome (time to death, time to rehospitalization for heart failure, and time-averaged proportional change in N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide level) . In a prespecified subgroup analysis, there was no effect of liraglutide compared with placebo on heart failure outcomes in the subset of patients with diabetes.
The choice of additional therapy in metformin-treated patients with type 2 diabetes and persistent hyperglycemia should be individualized based upon patient characteristics, preferences, and costs. Among these considerations, a prior history of myocardial infarction or stroke might favor choosing liraglutide as the second drug to be added to metformin. (See "Glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonists for the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus", section on 'Cardiovascular effects'.)
Cardiovascular effects of early versus late menopausal hormone therapy (April 2016)
The Women's Health Initiative reported that menopausal hormone therapy is associated with an excess risk of coronary heart disease, but accumulating data suggest that estrogen therapy started soon after menopause does not increase risk. In The Early versus Late Intervention Trial with Estradiol (ELITE), 643 postmenopausal women, stratified according to time since menopause (<6 or >10 years; early versus late, respectively), received oral estradiol (with progesterone for women with a uterus) or placebo for a median of five years . Progression of subclinical atherosclerosis (measured as carotid intima-medial thickness) was slower with hormone therapy than with placebo in the early intervention group, while rates of progression were similar to placebo in the late intervention group. Estradiol had no effect on computed tomography measures of coronary artery calcium in either the early or late intervention group. (See "Menopausal hormone therapy: Benefits and risks", section on 'Younger postmenopausal women'.)
Metformin use and reduced kidney function (April 2016)
The use of metformin is contraindicated in patients with factors predisposing to lactic acidosis, including impaired renal function. The precise renal thresholds for the safe use of metformin remain uncertain. Improved clinical outcomes with metformin have been reported in observational studies of patients with diabetes and renal impairment (estimated glomerular filtration rate [eGFR] 45 to 60 mL/min). On the basis of these studies, the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) revised its labeling of metformin, which previously had identified metformin as contraindicated in women and men with serum creatinine levels ≥1.4 mg/dL (124 micromol/L) and ≥1.5 mg/dL (133 micromol/L), respectively . The use of metformin is contraindicated in patients with an eGFR <30 mL/min, and the initiation of metformin is not recommended in patients with an eGFR between 30 and 45 mL/min. For patients taking metformin whose eGFR falls below 45 mL/min, the benefits and risks of continuing treatment should be assessed, whereas metformin should be discontinued if the eGFR falls below 30 mL/min. For patients with eGFR between 30 and 60 mL/min, we typically reduce the metformin dose by half (no more than 1000 mg per day), although there are no data to support this approach. (See "Metformin in the treatment of adults with type 2 diabetes mellitus", section on 'Contraindications'.)
Endocrine Society Statement: Bioidentical hormone therapy (April 2016)
The Endocrine Society has issued a Scientific Statement warning against the use of custom compounded "bioidentical hormone therapy" for managing menopausal symptoms . This term refers to the use of custom-compounded, multi-hormone regimens (pills, gels, sublingual tablets, or suppositories) with dose adjustments based upon serial hormone monitoring. Compounded preparations typically include estradiol, estrone, estriol, progesterone, testosterone, and dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA). Included among the key points were the absence of randomized trials demonstrating either efficacy or safety of compounded bioidentical hormone therapy for treating menopausal symptoms and the absence of regulatory oversight. When tested, potencies and patterns of absorption of compounded estrogens have been highly variable. Women who choose to take menopausal hormone therapy should be encouraged to use approved and regulated preparations of bioidentical hormones (for example, 17-beta estradiol and micronized progesterone). (See "Treatment of menopausal symptoms with hormone therapy", section on 'Bioidentical hormone therapy'.)
Toronto consensus for treatment of Helicobacter pylori (June 2016)
The Toronto consensus has published new guidelines for the treatment of Helicobacter pylori in adults . These guidelines recommend a longer duration of treatment for all eradication regimens (14 versus 10 days), limiting the use of triple therapy to areas with low clarithromycin resistance or high eradication rates, and using quadruple (bismuth-containing or non-bismuth) therapy as a first line in all other areas. This is consistent with our approach. (See "Treatment regimens for Helicobacter pylori", section on 'Sequential therapy'.)
Rome IV criteria for functional gastrointestinal disorders (June 2016)
The Rome Foundation has released revised criteria (Rome IV) for the diagnosis of functional gastrointestinal disorders . Examples of notable revisions include the changes to the criteria for irritable bowel syndrome and its subtypes, new criteria for reflux hypersensitivity, and inclusion of diagnoses with known etiologies that alter gut-brain interaction (eg, opioid-induced constipation). (See "Clinical manifestations and diagnosis of irritable bowel syndrome in adults", section on 'Diagnostic criteria'.)
ADULT HEMATOLOGY AND ONCOLOGY
Initial treatment for localized, low-risk prostate cancer (September 2016)
There are many options for treating men with localized, low-risk prostate cancer. The most extensive data comparing these options come from the Prostate testing for cancer and Treatment (ProtecT) trial, in which 1653 patients with localized, low-risk prostate cancer were randomly assigned to active surveillance, radical prostatectomy, or radiation therapy (RT) [30,31]. At a median follow-up of 10 years, there was no difference in 10-year overall survival, which was approximately 99 percent for all three groups. However, the incidence of metastases was increased in patients randomized to active surveillance (6.3 per 1000 person-years versus 2.4 and 3.0 for those managed with radical prostatectomy or RT). Longer follow-up will be required to know whether the higher incidence of metastatic disease affects cancer-specific mortality, overall mortality, or quality of life. Decisions regarding the choice of treatment continue to be individualized based upon a consideration of patient age, comorbidity, and patient preferences. (See "Initial approach to low- and very low-risk clinically localized prostate cancer", section on 'ProtecT trial'.)
Laboratory testing of donated blood for Zika virus (April 2016, Modified August 2016)
The US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) now recommends universal testing of blood components for Zika virus in the United States and its territories (with a several month implementation period), based on an increasing number of cases of mosquito-borne transmission of Zika virus in Florida and Puerto Rico and the potential for sexual transmission from asymptomatic individuals . The testing involves one of two assays that detect Zika virus RNA. Approximately 1 percent of donations from Puerto Rico, an active transmission area, were positive for Zika virus in June of 2016 . Blood collection facilities also use the donor medical and travel history to disqualify individuals who may be infected with Zika virus. (See "Blood donor screening: Laboratory testing", section on 'Zika virus'.)
Duration of adjuvant endocrine therapy for breast cancer (July 2016)
For postmenopausal women receiving adjuvant treatment with an aromatase inhibitor (AI) for hormone-positive breast cancer, the standard duration of treatment has been five years. However, data from the MA17R trial demonstrated that a longer course of treatment improves disease-free survival (DFS) . Among approximately 1900 postmenopausal women who had completed four and a half to six years of therapy with an AI, treatment for an additional five years improved five-year DFS relative to those who received placebo (95 versus 91 percent). There was no difference between the groups in regards to overall survival. Bone-related toxic effects were more frequent among those receiving extended treatment. Based on these results, we now offer an additional five years of treatment to those who have completed five years of AI therapy. However, it is reasonable for women with low risk of recurrence who are concerned about the risks and toxicities of extended treatment to omit extended treatment after a risk-benefit discussion. (See "Adjuvant endocrine therapy for non-metastatic, hormone receptor-positive breast cancer", section on 'Duration of endocrine treatment'.)
Dosing of direct oral anticoagulants in obese patients (June 2016)
Limited data are available to guide dosing of direct oral anticoagulants (DOACs; dabigatran, apixaban, edoxaban, rivaroxaban) in patients with obesity. The International Society of Thrombosis and Hemostasis (ISTH) has issued guidance on this subject . The major recommendations include use of DOACs at standard doses for those with a body mass index (BMI) ≤40 kg/m2 or weight <120 kg, and avoidance of DOACs in individuals with a BMI >40 kg/m2 or weight ≥120 kg. (See "Direct oral anticoagulants: Dosing and adverse effects".)
ADULT INFECTIOUS DISEASE
HBV reactivation during HCV antiviral therapy (October 2016)
Reactivation of hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection, including cases with fatal fulminant hepatitis, has been reported in several patients receiving direct-acting antiviral therapy for hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection . Patients should be tested for HBV coinfection prior to initiation of HCV therapy, with HBV treatment initiated for those who meet criteria. HBV surface antigen (HBsAg) positive patients who do not initially meet HBV treatment criteria should be monitored with HBV DNA testing during HCV treatment. In patients with a positive HBV core antibody (HBcAb) but negative HBsAg, we check liver enzymes during HCV treatment and perform reflex HBsAg and HBV DNA testing for unexplained elevations. (See "Patient evaluation and selection for antiviral therapy for chronic hepatitis C virus infection", section on 'HBV coinfection' and "Overview of the management of chronic hepatitis C virus infection", section on 'Other laboratory testing'.)
Condom use in HIV serodiscordant couples (August 2016)
HIV serodiscordant couples may question whether continued condom use is necessary for HIV prevention if the HIV-infected partner is on antiretroviral therapy (ART). One observational study followed over 900 serodiscordant couples (both heterosexual couples and men who have sex with men [MSM]) in whom the HIV-infected partner was virally suppressed on ART and who chose not to use condoms . After more than 1200 couple-years of follow-up, there were no intra-couple transmission events. Ten MSM and one heterosexual partner acquired HIV infection during the study period, but viral sequence analysis suggested that these infections were not transmitted from the long-term HIV-infected partner. We continue to encourage condom use in HIV serodiscordant couples, as condoms offer protection from other sexually transmitted infections and provide back-up for potential periods of loss of virologic suppression. We advise couples who choose not to use condoms that the risk of HIV transmission in the setting of stable virologic suppression of the infected partner, while apparently negligible, cannot be ruled out completely. (See "HIV infection: Risk factors and prevention strategies", section on 'Serodiscordant couples'.)
HIV treatment to prevent sexual transmission (August 2016)
Growing evidence has bolstered the concept that successful antiretroviral therapy (ART) of HIV-infected individuals substantially reduces the risk of sexual HIV transmission. Final analysis of a multinational randomized trial (HPTN 052) of over 1700 HIV serodiscordant heterosexual couples demonstrated that early ART for the HIV-infected partner, compared with delaying ART until certain clinical parameters were met, reduced HIV transmission risk by 93 percent . All participants received condoms and risk reduction counseling. There were no linked transmissions (determined by detecting the same virus in both partners through viral sequencing) from HIV-infected individuals who had achieved stable viral suppression on ART; all eight linked transmissions from HIV-infected individuals using ART occurred within three months of ART initiation or in the setting of ART failure. This preventive benefit of ART is one of the reasons that early ART is recommended for all HIV-infected individuals, regardless of CD4 cell count. (See "HIV infection: Risk factors and prevention strategies", section on 'Treatment as prevention' and "When to initiate antiretroviral therapy in HIV-infected patients", section on 'Benefits of antiretroviral therapy'.)
Mosquito-borne transmission of Zika virus in the continental United States (August 2016)
Zika virus is a mosquito-borne infection associated with congenital microcephaly and other birth defects among babies born to women infected during pregnancy. Mosquito-borne transmission of Zika virus was detected in Florida in July 2016, and in August 2016 the United States Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) issued an advisory recommending that pregnant women avoid travel to affected areas . Updates regarding areas with Zika may be found on the CDC website (http://www.cdc.gov/zika/). (See "Zika virus infection: An overview", section on 'Travel advisories for pregnant women'.)
Sofosbuvir-velpatasvir for all genotypes of chronic HCV infection (July 2016)
All-oral, direct-acting antiviral regimens for chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection have proliferated over the past two years. Sofosbuvir-velpatasvir, a coformulated combination of an NS5B and an NS5A inhibitor, is the first such regimen that has high, well-established efficacy for all genotypes, even in patients with cirrhosis or prior treatment failure with interferon-based regimens [40-42]. This agent was approved by the US Food and Drug Administration in June 2016 and is now our preferred or one of our preferred regimens for adults with chronic HCV infection of any genotype because of its efficacy, simplicity of administration, and limited drug interactions. Sofosbuvir-velpatasvir is given for 12 weeks for all genotypes. For genotype 3 infection, the addition of ribavirin may be warranted, depending on the presence of cirrhosis, the prior treatment history, and the presence of mutations associated with NS5A resistance. (See "Treatment regimens for chronic hepatitis C virus genotype 1 infection in adults", section on 'Selection of treatment regimens' and "Treatment regimens for chronic hepatitis C virus genotypes 2 and 3 infection in adults", section on 'Selection of treatment regimen' and "Treatment regimens for chronic hepatitis C virus genotypes 4, 5, and 6 infection in adults", section on 'Selection of treatment regimens'.)
Treatment failure of pharyngeal gonorrhea following combination antimicrobial therapy (July 2016)
Because of concerns about the decreasing susceptibility of Neisseria gonorrhoeae to several classes of antibiotics, combination antimicrobial therapy with ceftriaxone plus a second agent, preferably azithromycin, is the recommended treatment for uncomplicated gonorrhea. However, treatment failure following combination therapy has now been reported, in a heterosexual man from the United Kingdom who presented with both urogenital and pharyngeal infection . Although the urogenital infection was successfully treated with ceftriaxone plus azithromycin, the pharyngeal infection persisted, and decreased susceptibility to both agents was detected in the post-treatment isolate. This report, in addition to surveillance reports suggesting increasing rates of decreased susceptibility to azithromycin in N. gonorrhoeae isolates in the United States , highlights the need for novel treatment strategies for gonorrhea in the face of rising antimicrobial resistance. (See "Treatment of uncomplicated gonococcal infections", section on 'Monitoring for and managing treatment failure' and "Treatment of uncomplicated gonococcal infections", section on 'Rationale for dual therapy'.)
USPSTF recommendations on syphilis screening in nonpregnant adults and adolescents (June 2016)
In June 2016, the United States Preventive Services Task Force updated its statement on syphilis screening in asymptomatic nonpregnant adolescents and adults to recommend screening for those who are at high risk for infection . These include sexually active men who have sex with men (MSM), HIV-infected patients, and individuals with a history of incarceration or commercial sex work. The optimal frequency of routine screening in high-risk patients without a clear exposure is yet to be determined. Consistent with other expert guidelines, we suggest annual screening for sexually active MSM and HIV-infected individuals, with more frequent screening for those with high-risk behaviors, such as multiple or anonymous sexual partners. (See "Syphilis: Screening and diagnostic testing", section on 'Asymptomatic patients' and "Screening for sexually transmitted infections".)
Viral dynamics and symptom onset in acute HIV infection (May 2016)
A recent study that closely followed 50 acutely HIV-infected patients who had been identified by prospective viral testing of high-risk individuals provides precise information on the clinical features and viral dynamics shortly following infection . Although almost all subjects had at least one reported symptom or sign during the first four weeks of infection, these were mainly short-lived, nonspecific, and unlikely to have brought the individual to clinical attention outside of a study setting. The highest frequency of symptoms and signs were observed just before peak viremia occurred, approximately two weeks after the initial detection of viral RNA. These results highlight the difficulty of suspecting acute HIV infection by clinical features alone and thus, the importance of repeated HIV screening in high-risk individuals. (See "Acute and early HIV infection: Clinical manifestations and diagnosis", section on 'Clinical features'.)
Shortage of benzathine penicillin G (Bicillin L-A) (May 2016)
In May 2016, the United States Centers for Disease Control and Prevention reported a manufacturing delay of benzathine penicillin G (Bicillin L-A), which is the treatment of choice for all stages of syphilis . In light of potential shortages of this agent, it is important for clinicians to note that only a single dose of benzathine penicillin G is warranted for early syphilis. Pregnant women with syphilis should be prioritized for benzathine penicillin G, and so alternative regimens, such as doxycycline, may need to be used for nonpregnant adults if supplies are limited. Bicillin C-R (equal concentrations of procaine and benzathine penicillin G) should not be used to treat syphilis. (See "Syphilis: Treatment and monitoring", section on 'Penicillin as the treatment of choice'.)
Restriction of fluoroquinolone use in uncomplicated infections (May 2016)
The US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has stated that the serious adverse effects associated with fluoroquinolones generally outweigh the benefits for patients with uncomplicated acute sinusitis, acute bronchitis, and urinary tract infections who have other treatment options . For patients with these infections, fluoroquinolones should be reserved for those who have no alternative treatment options. This announcement was based on an FDA safety review showing that systemic fluoroquinolone use is associated with disabling and potentially permanent serious side effects, including those involving the tendons, muscles, joints, nerves, and central nervous system. (See "Fluoroquinolones", section on 'Restriction of use for uncomplicated infections'.)
Nonoccupational postexposure prophylaxis to prevent HIV infection (April 2016)
A discrete course of antiretroviral therapy (ART) administered after a possible exposure to HIV may reduce the risk of HIV acquisition. The US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) has issued updated guidelines on HIV prophylaxis following a nonoccupational exposure . A 28-day course of a three-drug regimen (eg, tenofovir disoproxil fumarate-emtricitabine plus either raltegravir or dolutegravir) should be offered to patients who present within 72 hours of a high-risk exposure (eg, condomless receptive or insertive vaginal or anal intercourse or a percutaneous exposure to blood or bloody body fluids) from a source who is HIV-infected or is at high risk for HIV infection. Exposed patients should be educated about the signs and symptoms of acute HIV infection, and have follow up HIV testing. (See "Nonoccupational exposure to HIV in adults".)
ADULT NEPHROLOGY AND HYPERTENSION
Goal blood pressure in older adults (June 2016)
Goal blood pressure in older adults was examined in the Systolic Pressure Intervention Trial (SPRINT) . SPRINT enrolled a subgroup of more than 2600 ambulatory adults aged 75 years or older, including 349 categorized as being fit, 1456 as less fit, and 815 as frail according to a validated frailty index. At 3.1 years, rates of both the primary cardiovascular endpoint and all-cause mortality were significantly lower among those assigned more intensive (goal <120 mmHg) versus less intensive (goal <140 mmHg) systolic blood pressure lowering. The benefit from more intensive blood pressure control was present in both fit and frail older adults. Serious adverse events were similar in the two treatment groups, and did not depend upon frailty. (See "Treatment of hypertension in the elderly patient, particularly isolated systolic hypertension", section on 'Goal blood pressure'.)
ADULT NEUROLOGY AND PSYCHIATRY
Age of symptom onset and diagnosis of adult ADHD (September 2016)
Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is conceptualized as a disorder with childhood onset that persists in adulthood. DSM-5 diagnostic criteria for adult ADHD require the presence of several symptoms prior to age 12 years. Multiple recent studies, however, have challenged this understanding of the disorder. One of them, a longitudinal cohort study, followed all children born in Pelotas, Brazil in 1993 up to the ages of 18 or 19 years . Three hundred ninety-three of the 5249 children were diagnosed with ADHD at age 11 and 492 were diagnosed with ADHD at age 18 or 19 years. Only 60 children with ADHD continued to have ADHD as young adults (17.2 percent) and only 60 young adults with ADHD had the disorder in childhood (12.6 percent). The requirement of childhood onset for the diagnosis of adult ADHD is controversial and may be reexamined as further data become available. (See "Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder in adults: Epidemiology, pathogenesis, clinical features, course, assessment, and diagnosis", section on 'Course'.)
Complications of dopaminergic therapy for restless legs syndrome (August 2016)
The main complication of long-term dopaminergic therapy for restless legs syndrome/Willis-Ekbom disease (RLS/WED) is “augmentation,” or an increase in symptom severity with increasing doses of medication. This may present as earlier onset of symptoms during the day, increased intensity of symptoms, or spread to previously uninvolved body parts (eg, arms, trunk). New consensus-based guidelines on the identification and management of augmentation recommend avoiding dopaminergic drugs as first-line therapy for RLS/WED when possible, screening patients on dopaminergic therapy for augmentation as part of routine clinical follow-up , and using the lowest doses possible to control symptoms . Treatment options for augmentation reviewed in the guideline include altering the dopaminergic dosing schedule, switching to an extended release preparation, and transitioning to an alpha-2-delta calcium channel ligand (eg, gabapentin enacarbil, pregabalin). In addition, alternative causes of worsening symptoms should be sought, such as low iron stores, sleep deprivation, and certain drugs such as serotonergic antidepressants. (See "Treatment of restless legs syndrome/Willis-Ekbom disease and periodic limb movement disorder in adults", section on 'Augmentation'.)
Early benefit of aspirin after TIA or ischemic stroke (July 2016)
The risk of recurrent ischemic stroke is highest in the first days and weeks after a transient ischemic attack (TIA) or ischemic stroke, but the benefit of aspirin in this time period has not been well studied. In a recent pooled analysis of data from over 15,000 subjects in 12 trials evaluating aspirin for secondary prevention, the benefit of aspirin was strongest in the early weeks after TIA or ischemic stroke . Compared with control (mostly placebo), aspirin reduced the relative risk of recurrent ischemic stroke within the first six weeks by 58 percent (1 versus 2.4 percent, absolute risk reduction 1.4 percent). The benefit of aspirin in this time frame was greatest for the subgroup of patients with TIA or minor stroke. These findings emphasize that aspirin should be started as early as possible after the diagnosis of TIA or ischemic stroke is confirmed. (See "Antiplatelet therapy for secondary prevention of stroke", section on 'Aspirin'.)
Treatment of binge eating disorder (July 2016)
Several psychotherapies and medications have been studied for treating binge eating disorder. In a recent systematic review and meta-analysis of trials evaluating the efficacy of different treatment options compared with no treatment or placebo, there was strong evidence supporting the use of therapist-led cognitive-behavior therapy (CBT), lisdexamfetamine, or second-generation antidepressants (eg, selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors) . In addition, less compelling evidence indicated that patients can achieve abstinence with self-help CBT or topiramate. We regard CBT as first-line treatment; however, no head-to-head trials have compared the efficacy of different active treatments. (See "Binge eating disorder in adults: Overview of treatment", section on 'Cognitive-behavior therapy'.)
Safety of smoking cessation medications in patients with and without mental health disorders (May 2016)
Reports of newly emergent depression, suicidal ideation, and suicidal behavior among patients receiving bupropion or varenicline for smoking cessation raised questions about the safety of these drugs in smokers with mental health disorders. In a recent trial examining the safety of these medications, more than 8000 motivated adult smokers, approximately half with clinically stable mental disorders, were randomly assigned to varenicline, bupropion, transdermal nicotine, or placebo for 12 weeks . Compared with patients without mental health disorders, patients with such disorders were more likely to experience neuropsychiatric adverse events (including anxiety, depression, agitation, or hostility) during treatment (2.1 versus 5.8 percent). However, in both patients with and without mental health disorders, the rate of events did not differ for patients assigned to varenicline or bupropion compared with placebo. Rates of smoking abstinence were higher for each of the three drugs compared with placebo, and higher with varenicline compared with bupropion or transdermal nicotine. The findings are consistent with previous, smaller trials supporting carefully monitored use of smoking-cessation medications in smokers with stable mental health disorders. (See "Pharmacotherapy for co-occurring schizophrenia and substance use disorder", section on 'Safety' and "Pharmacotherapy for smoking cessation in adults", section on 'Neuropsychiatric effects'.)
Safety of inhaled glucocorticoid-LABA combination therapy in asthma (September 2016)
In early studies, a small increase in asthma-related deaths associated with salmeterol led the US Food and Drug Administration to place a boxed warning on the use of long-acting beta agonists (LABAs) in asthma. While concerning, the number of events was small, and it could not be determined if the potential risk of salmeterol could be mitigated by combining LABAs with inhaled glucocorticoids. Three large randomized trials including 30,000 children and adults found no increase in asthma-related adverse events or deaths among patients who used combination inhalers with salmeterol or formoterol plus an inhaled glucocorticoid versus glucocorticoid monotherapy [56-58]. These studies support the safety of these fixed-dose combination inhalers in patients with moderate-to-severe asthma. (See "Beta agonists in asthma: Controversy regarding chronic use", section on 'Potential risk mitigation'.)
CPAP in obstructive sleep apnea does not reduce cardiovascular events (August 2016)
Whether continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) therapy can reduce the increased risk of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality associated with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is unknown. The largest trial to address this issue randomized 2717 patients with moderate to severe OSA and established cardiovascular disease to CPAP therapy plus usual care or usual care alone (eg, education, risk factor modification) and followed patients for 3.7 years . Despite adequate control of OSA, there was no difference in cardiovascular events (eg, cardiovascular deaths, myocardial infarction, or stroke). However, the exclusion of patients who are among the most likely to benefit from CPAP (eg, patients with “sleepy” OSA) and a low adherence rate to therapy (mean was 3.3 hours per night) may have limited the potential benefit from this therapy. While the cardiovascular benefits are unproven, CPAP should be administered for the associated noncardiovascular benefits (eg, improvement in symptoms and quality of life) and should remain the mainstay of therapy for patients with moderate to severe OSA. (See "Obstructive sleep apnea and cardiovascular disease", section on 'Cardiovascular events'.)
Combination inhaled glucocorticoid/long-acting beta agonists in patients with COPD and cardiovascular risk factors or disease (May 2016)
While the evidence has been generally reassuring about the safety of combination inhaled glucocorticoid plus long-acting beta agonist (ICS-LABA) inhalers in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), patients with known cardiovascular disease (CVD) were excluded from previous clinical trials. In the three-year randomized trial, Study to Understand Mortality and MorbidITy (SUMMIT), the effect of the fluticasone furoate-vilanterol combination inhaler was compared with the individual components and placebo in almost 17,000 patients with moderate COPD (FEV1 between 50 and 70 percent of predicted) and known or increased risk of CVD . Relative to placebo, the combination inhaler did not affect all-cause mortality or composite cardiovascular events. Thus, the presence of CVD should not affect the role of ICS-LABA inhalers in COPD. (See "Management of the patient with severe COPD and cardiovascular disease", section on 'Combination inhaled bronchodilator plus glucocorticoid'.)
Tai Chi for patients with knee osteoarthritis (June 2016)
Tai Chi, a multicomponent traditional Chinese mind-body practice, combines slow and graceful movements with meditative relaxation techniques and can reduce pain and improve physical function in patients with osteoarthritis (OA), compared with control interventions. In a recent randomized trial involving over 200 patients with knee OA, a Tai Chi program (twice weekly for 12 weeks, with instruction to practice Tai Chi daily), resulted in benefit similar to an active comparator, outpatient physical therapy and a home exercise program . After 12 weeks, both groups exhibited statistically and clinically significant reduction in the Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Arthritis Index (WOMAC) pain score, and differences between the groups were not statistically significant. Benefits were maintained at 52 weeks of follow-up. The Tai Chi group had greater improvements in depression and the physical quality-of-life measure. (See "Nonpharmacologic therapy of osteoarthritis", section on 'Tai Chi'.)
Acetaminophen for knee and hip osteoarthritis (May 2016)
Treatment with acetaminophen (paracetamol, N-acetyl-p-aminophenol [APAP]) appears to be slightly more effective than no treatment in relieving overall pain from osteoarthritis (OA), but generally less effective than nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs (NSAIDs). This was recently illustrated in a 2016 network meta-analysis of randomized trials involving nearly 60,000 patients with knee or hip OA receiving either APAP, one of seven NSAIDs, or placebo . The summary estimates of benefit with APAP were extremely low, although statistically significant, for the highest dose of APAP, but less than the predefined minimum clinically important effect. These results do not exclude the possibility that some patients respond, while many others do not. In patients with OA lacking signs or symptoms of inflammation, we initiate pharmacologic therapy with acetaminophen on an as-needed basis. If this is inadequate, we advise a trial of acetaminophen on a scheduled basis up to three to four times daily. Such use is consistent with evidence supporting its modest benefit compared with placebo and its relative safety. (See "Initial pharmacologic therapy of osteoarthritis", section on 'Noninflammatory OA'.)
Safety of magnetic resonance imaging and gadolinium in pregnancy (September 2016)
Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) may be used for diagnostic imaging in pregnancy when ultrasound examination is inadequate; however, fetal safety has not been conclusively established. Recently, the largest study of MRI in pregnancy (over 1700 exposed and 1.4 million unexposed births) reported that first-trimester MRI was not associated with significantly increased risks for stillbirth, neonatal death, congenital anomaly, neoplasm, or vision or hearing loss in children followed up to age four years, when adjustments were made for differences between exposure groups . The study also found that gadolinium exposure at any time during pregnancy was associated with an increased risk for stillbirth and neonatal death. Children exposed in utero were at increased risk for rheumatological, inflammatory, or infiltrative skin conditions, but not congenital anomalies or nephrogenic systemic fibrosis (NSF). This study is a major addition to the body of evidence supporting the safety of MRI in pregnancy when medically indicated. It also provides the first data supporting existing recommendations to avoid use of gadolinium-based contrast agents in pregnant women, when possible. (See "Diagnostic imaging procedures during pregnancy", section on 'Magnetic resonance imaging'.)
Safety of intranasal triamcinolone for allergic rhinitis in pregnancy (July 2016)
Intranasal glucocorticoid sprays are highly effective for treatment of allergic rhinitis, but concerns remain about their use in pregnancy. The overall safety of intranasal glucocorticoids in pregnancy was supported by an observational cohort study of over 140,000 pregnant women, of whom 2502 were exposed to these medications during the first trimester . Exposure was not associated with increased rates of miscarriage or overall rates of major congenital malformations compared with non-exposure. Triamcinolone was the only intranasal glucocorticoid of potential concern; first trimester use was associated with abnormalities of the respiratory system and choanal atresia. Although these findings are not conclusive, we prefer to use other intranasal glucocorticoids in the first trimester, such as intranasal mometasone, fluticasone, or budesonide, pending further data . (See "Recognition and management of allergic disease during pregnancy", section on 'Glucocorticoid nasal sprays'.)
PEDIATRICS: GENERAL PEDIATRICS
Bag urine specimen testing to determine the need for urine culture in children (October 2016)
A bag urine specimen for a screening urine dipstick and/or urinalysis may prevent the need for a catheterized urine culture in selected patients older than 6 months of age at low risk for a urinary tract infection (UTI). In an observational study of over 800 previously healthy, well-appearing children 6 to 24 months of age presenting to a pediatric emergency department for evaluation of fever, screening of urine obtained by a bag specimen reduced the number of subsequent urine cultures obtained by bladder catheterization from 63 to 30 percent without prolonging the length of stay or increasing rates of revisits or missed UTI . Although potentially helpful for urine screening tests, bag urine samples should not be routinely used to obtain urine samples for culture, especially in situations where contamination of the specimen will complicate further management (eg, young infants or ill-appearing patients who warrant empiric parenteral antibiotics). (See "Urine collection techniques in infants and children with suspected urinary tract infection", section on 'Specimen for urine dipstick or urinalysis'.)
Strategies for preventing obesity and eating disorders (September 2016)
Clinicians and parents may be reluctant to address obesity in children because of concerns for promoting eating disorders. A new clinical report from the American Academy of Pediatrics outlines strategies that can be used to address obesity without promoting disordered eating . These include counseling parents to avoid "weight talk" (comments that focus on weight or weight-related appearance, even if they are not directed at the child) and focusing goals on healthy food choices and healthy eating behaviors rather than dieting (which is distinguished by caloric restriction with a goal of weight loss). (See "Management of childhood obesity in the primary care setting", section on 'Raising the sensitive issue of weight'.)
Infant simulator programs do not prevent teenage pregnancy (September 2016)
Infant simulator programs combine educational sessions with "care" for a doll that is programmed to replicate infant behaviors. They have become popular despite evidence from observational studies that they do not affect teenagers' attitudes toward teenage parenthood. A recent randomized trial provides additional evidence that infant simulator programs are ineffective . In this trial, 57 schools were randomly assigned to provide an infant simulator intervention or standard health education curriculum to 13- to 15-year-old girls who volunteered to participate. By 20 years of age, participants from the simulation schools had higher rates of birth (8 versus 4 percent) and abortion (9 versus 6 percent) than those who received the standard curriculum. We suggest a multifaceted approach to teenage pregnancy prevention, focusing on comprehensive sexuality education, delaying onset of sexual activity, and promotion of consistent and correct use of effective contraception for teenagers who decide to become sexually active. (See "Pregnancy in adolescents", section on 'Prevention'.)
Lipid screening in children and adolescents (August 2016)
Increasing evidence suggests that atherosclerosis begins in childhood and adolescence, yet the optimal strategies for early screening and treatment of the disease remain uncertain. A recent statement of the US Preventive Services Task Force (USPSTF) concluded that the available evidence on screening for lipid disorders in children and adolescents is insufficient to assess the balance of benefits and harms of screening . This position is unchanged from the 2007 USPSTF statement; however, it contradicts the 2011 National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute (NHLBI) guidelines for cardiovascular health and risk reduction, which recommend screening in all children and adolescents and have been endorsed by the American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) and the American Heart Association (AHA) . We continue to suggest both age-based universal and selective screening for pediatric dyslipidemia. (See "Dyslipidemia in children: Definition, screening, and diagnosis", section on 'Recommendations of others'.)
Absence of pyuria in children with UTI (July 2016)
The diagnosis of urinary tract infection (UTI) in children is usually based on the finding of significant bacteriuria plus pyuria. However, in a retrospective review of 1181 children <18 years of age with symptomatic UTI and significant growth of a single uropathogen, microscopic urinalysis did not show pyuria in 13 percent . The frequency of pyuria was lower in children with Enterococcus (54 percent), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (62 percent), and Klebsiella (74 percent) than in children with E. coli (89 percent). Therefore, if the urine culture of a child with UTI symptoms demonstrates significant growth (≥50,000 colony-forming units [CFU]/mL from a catheterized specimen or ≥100,000 CFU/mL from a clean voided specimen) of Enterococcus, Klebsiella, or P. aeruginosa, UTI may be diagnosed in the absence of pyuria. (See "Urinary tract infections in infants and children older than one month: Clinical features and diagnosis", section on 'Pyuria'.)
Mild skin-limited allergic reactions to antibiotics in children (June 2016)
It is not uncommon for young children to develop mild skin-limited reactions (eg, rash, hives) to antibiotics, particularly amoxicillin, during treatment for routine infections. Most of these reactions do not represent serious drug allergy, but IgE-mediated anaphylaxis can first present in this manner, so caution is necessary. In a new study of over 800 young children referred to an allergy clinic with past mild cutaneous reactions to amoxicillin, all children underwent a two-step challenge . Ninety-four percent had no reaction, 2 percent had mild immediate reactions (isolated hives), and 4 percent had mild delayed reactions. Skin testing was later performed on the subset with immediate initial reactions, and only 1 of 17 children had a positive result, indicating that skin testing would not have been useful in identifying these children before challenge. At present, we do not advocate this approach unless there is no alternative antibiotic and allergy referral is not available. However, this study provides valuable information about the pathophysiology of this common type of reaction and may allow for safe rechallenge protocols to be developed in the future for use in the primary care setting. (See "Penicillin allergy: Delayed hypersensitivity reactions", section on 'Children'.)
Nebulized hypertonic saline does not reduce length of stay in children with bronchiolitis (June 2016)
In previous meta-analyses, compared with a placebo (nebulized normal saline), nebulized hypertonic saline appeared to reduce the length of stay in children hospitalized with bronchiolitis, but the findings were limited by heterogeneity. A new meta-analysis reanalyzed the data controlling for the major sources of heterogeneity (imbalance in duration of illness between treatment groups and a widely divergent outcome definition in one study population) . In the reanalysis, nebulized hypertonic saline had no effect on length of stay. This finding supports our suggestion against the routine use of nebulized hypertonic saline in hospitalized children with bronchiolitis. Maintenance of adequate hydration, provision of oxygen and respiratory support as necessary, monitoring disease progression, and anticipatory guidance are the mainstays of management of severe bronchiolitis. (See "Bronchiolitis in infants and children: Treatment; outcome; and prevention", section on 'Nebulized hypertonic saline'.)
Diluted apple juice for hydration in young children with mild gastroenteritis (May 2016)
Commercial oral rehydration solutions (ORS) are recommended for rehydration of children with gastroenteritis. More readily available household beverages, such as fruit juice, tea, sports drinks, and soft drinks, have not been recommended due to concerns that their lower sodium concentration and higher osmolarity could induce osmotic diarrhea, leading to hyponatremia. However, a randomized trial in children 6 to 60 months of age with mild gastroenteritis and no clinical signs of dehydration demonstrated that hydration with half-strength apple juice resulted in fewer episodes of treatment failure than ORS (17 versus 25 percent) . Treatment failure was defined as any of the following events occurring within seven days of enrollment: intravenous rehydration, hospitalization, subsequent unscheduled physician encounter, protracted symptoms, crossover to the other fluid, ≥3 percent weight loss, or signs of significant dehydration on a follow-up visit. Based on these findings, diluted apple juice followed by a permissive approach to fluid consumption is a reasonable alternative to ORS for hydration in young children with mild gastroenteritis and no clinical signs of dehydration. (See "Oral rehydration therapy", section on 'Common household beverages and fluids'.)
BMI during adolescence and cardiovascular mortality during adulthood (April 2016)
A variety of studies have shown associations between obesity during adolescence and multiple cardiovascular risk factors (eg, hypertension, dyslipidemia, diabetes). Now, a large population-based study from Israel found that higher body mass index (BMI) during late adolescence is associated with cardiovascular mortality in mid-adulthood . Of note, this association was seen even within the range of BMIs considered to be normal in adolescents, with a graded increase in risk of death as adolescent BMI rose above the 50th percentile. This study supports and expands the body of evidence suggesting that the processes causing coronary heart disease begin during adolescence. (See "Comorbidities and complications of obesity in children and adolescents", section on 'Adult coronary heart disease'.)
Increasing vegetable consumption in children (April 2016)
Vegetables are an important component of a healthy diet, but national surveys indicate that vegetable consumption by young children falls short of the recommended 2.5 cup-equivalents per day. In a longitudinal study, six-year old children who had been offered a variety of vegetables at the initiation of complementary feedings were more willing to try new vegetables, ate more new vegetables, and liked new vegetables more than children who were offered little or no variety of vegetables . Offering a vegetable that was initially disliked at eight subsequent meals was associated with increased acceptance of that vegetable and continuing to like and eat that vegetable at three and six years of age. These findings support recommendations to offer vegetables at least once per day, to offer a variety of vegetables, and to offer vegetables that are initially refused at subsequent meals. (See "Introducing solid foods and vitamin and mineral supplementation during infancy", section on 'Puréed foods'.)
PEDIATRICS: DEVELOPMENTAL AND BEHAVIORAL PEDIATRICS
Discontinuation of desmopressin treatment of nocturnal enuresis in children (July 2016)
Desmopressin is an effective short-term treatment for nocturnal enuresis in children, but relapse rates are high after discontinuation. A recent meta-analysis of four randomized trials including 500 patients demonstrated the benefit of tapering desmopressin rather than abrupt discontinuation (sustained response rate: 57 versus 42 percent) . In subgroup analyses, gradually decreasing the effective dose prevented relapse, but increasing the interval between doses did not. When discontinuing daily desmopressin, we suggest decreasing the daily dose rather than extending the interval between doses or abrupt discontinuation. (See "Nocturnal enuresis in children: Management", section on 'Discontinuation'.)
Duration of passive protection of the infant from maternal influenza vaccination (September 2016, Modified September 2016)
A randomized trial of trivalent inactivated influenza vaccination of pregnant women reported 86 percent efficacy against laboratory confirmed influenza among infants ≤8 weeks of age and 25 to 30 percent efficacy among infants 8 to 24 weeks of age, compared with placebo vaccination . These data suggest that the passive protection afforded by maternal influenza vaccination declines significantly before the infant is eligible for influenza vaccination at six months of age. (See "Influenza and pregnancy", section on 'Infant protection'.)
WHO recommendations for infant prophylaxis to prevent mother-to-child HIV transmission (July 2016)
The World Health Organization (WHO) has updated its guidelines on the use of antiretroviral agents to manage and prevent HIV infection . One major change from previous WHO statements involves post-exposure prophylaxis of infants born to HIV-infected mothers. The recommended regimen for infant prophylaxis now takes into account the infant's risk of infection, as determined by the timing of maternal infection and maternal antiretroviral treatment, in addition to the type of infant feeding; a two-drug regimen is recommended for high-risk infants. This recommendation was based, in part, on earlier data that demonstrated a lower HIV transmission rate with dual-agent rather than single-agent prophylaxis among infants born to mothers who had not received antiretroviral agents during pregnancy. (See "Prevention of mother-to-child HIV transmission in resource-limited settings", section on 'Infant antiretroviral use'.)
Neonatal phototherapy and potential increased risk of cancer (June 2016)
Phototherapy is used widely to treat neonatal hyperbilirubinemia and thought to be a relatively safe intervention, although concerns of an association with childhood cancer have been raised. Two recent studies have reinforced this uncertainty:
●In a retrospective cohort study including almost 500,000 infants ≥35 weeks gestational age, the overall prevalence of childhood cancer was greater in children exposed to phototherapy compared with unexposed controls (25 versus 18 per 100,000 person-years) . However, after controlling for confounding variables, the risks for overall cancer, nonlymphocytic leukemia, and liver cancer were similar for both groups.
●In a study that linked birth and death certificate and hospital discharge data for infants born in California, infants with diagnosis codes for phototherapy were more likely to have a cancer diagnosis by one year of age than those without such codes (32.6 versus 21 per 100,000 patients) . The risks for overall cancer, myeloid leukemia, and kidney cancer persisted after adjusting for confounders.
If phototherapy is a risk factor for childhood cancer, the effect appears to be no more than modest. Given this possibility, phototherapy should be prescribed judiciously. (See "Treatment of unconjugated hyperbilirubinemia in term and late preterm infants", section on 'Childhood cancer'.)
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