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Medline ® Abstracts for References 1-3

of 'Vitamin D deficiency in adults: Definition, clinical manifestations, and treatment'

1
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Effect of aging on vitamin D stores and bone density in women.
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Tsai KS, Wahner HW, Offord KP, Melton LJ 3rd, Kumar R, Riggs BL
SO
Calcif Tissue Int. 1987;40(5):241.
 
It has been suggested that the decrease in vitamin D stores with aging is a contributory cause of age-related osteoporosis. We studied this question by measuring bone mineral density (BMD) of the mid-radius, distal radius, and lumbar spine assessed by single and dual photon absorptiometry in 122 women, aged 33-94 years, selected from a random sample of Rochester, MN residents. We measured serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25OHD), the major storage form of vitamin D, as well as 25OHD3 (representing both endogenous and exogenous sources of vitamin D), and 25OHD2 (representing only exogenous sources). Both baseline serum total 25OHD (r = -0.29, P less than 0.001) and the metabolite 25OHD3 (r = -0.41, P less than 0.001), were negatively associated with age at baseline. After adjusting for the effect of age by multiple regression analysis, there was no association between serum levels of 25OHD2, 25OHD3, or total 25OHD and BMD for any of the three skeletal scanning sites. Thus, in a northern American population we cannot demonstrate that reduced bioavailability of vitamin D plays a major role in age-related bone loss.
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PMID
2
TI
Influence of season and latitude on the cutaneous synthesis of vitamin D3: exposure to winter sunlight in Boston and Edmonton will not promote vitamin D3 synthesis in human skin.
AU
Webb AR, Kline L, Holick MF
SO
J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 1988;67(2):373.
 
Sunlight has long been recognized as a major provider of vitamin D for humans; radiation in the UVB (290-315 nm) portion of the solar spectrum photolyzes 7-dehydrocholesterol in the skin to previtamin D3, which, in turn, is converted by a thermal process to vitamin D3. Latitude and season affect both the quantity and quality of solar radiation reaching the earth's surface, especially in the UVB region of the spectrum, but little is known about how these influence the ability of sunlight to synthesize vitamin D3 in skin. A model has been developed to evaluate the effect of seasonal and latitudinal changes on the potential of sunlight to initiate cutaneous production of vitamin D3. Human skin or [3 alpha-3H]7-dehydrocholesterol exposed to sunlight on cloudless days in Boston (42.2 degrees N) from November through February produced no previtamin D3. In Edmonton (52 degrees N) this ineffective winter period extended from October through March. Further south (34 degrees N and 18 degrees N), sunlight effectively photoconverted 7-dehydrocholesterol to previtamin D3 in the middle of winter. These results quantify the dramatic influence of changes in solar UVB radiation on cutaneous vitamin D3 synthesis and indicate the latitudinal increase in the length of the "vitamin D winter" during which dietary supplementation of the vitaminmay be advisable.
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Vitamin D, Skin, and Bone Research Laboratory, Boston University Medical School, Massachusetts 02118.
PMID
3
TI
Aging decreases the capacity of human skin to produce vitamin D3.
AU
MacLaughlin J, Holick MF
SO
J Clin Invest. 1985;76(4):1536.
 
An evaluation of surgically obtained skin (age range, 8-92 yr) revealed that there is an age-dependent decrease in the epidermal concentrations of provitamin D3 (7-dehydrocholesterol). To ascertain that aging indeed decreased the capacity of human skin to produce vitamin D3, some of the skin samples were exposed to ultraviolet radiation and the content of previtamin D3 was determined in the epidermis and dermis. The epidermis in the young and older subjects was the major site for the formation of previtamin D3, accounting for greater than 80% of the total previtamin D3 that was produced in the skin. A comparison of the amount of previtamin D3 produced in the skin from the 8- and 18-yr-old subjects with the amount produced in the skin from the 77- and 82-yr-old subjects revealed that aging can decrease by greater than twofold the capacity of the skin to produce previtamin D3. Recognition of this difference may be extremely important for the elderly, who infrequently expose a small area of skin to sunlight and who depend on this exposure for their vitamin D nutritional needs.
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PMID