Virology of human papillomavirus infections and the link to cancer
- Joel M Palefsky, MD
Joel M Palefsky, MD
- University of California San Francisco
- Immediate Past President, International Papillomavirus Society
- Past President, International Anal Neoplasia Society
- Ross D Cranston, MD
Ross D Cranston, MD
- Visiting Professor
- Fundació Lluita contra la Sida
- Hospital Universitari Germans Trias i Pujol
- Autonomous University of Barcelona
- Barcelona, Spain
- Section Editors
- Don S Dizon, MD, FACP
Don S Dizon, MD, FACP
- Section Editor – Gynecologic Oncology
- Head of Women's Cancers, Lifespan Cancer Institute
- Director of Medical Oncology, Rhode Island Hospital
- Associate Professor of Medicine, Warren Alpert Medical School of Brown University
- David M Aboulafia, MD
David M Aboulafia, MD
- Section Editor — AIDS-Related Malignancies
- Section Head
- Division of Hematology and Oncology
- Virginia Mason Medical Center
- Clinical Professor
Human papillomavirus (HPV) is the most common sexually transmitted infection in the United States. The biology of these viruses has been studied extensively and its link with malignancies is well established, specifically with cancers involving the anogenital (cervical, vaginal, vulvar, penile, anal) tract and those involving the head and neck. The virology of HPV and its association with malignancy will be reviewed here. The clinical manifestations, diagnosis, epidemiology, prevention, and treatment of HPV infection are discussed separately. (See "Human papillomavirus infections: Epidemiology and disease associations".)
Human papillomavirus (HPV) is a small deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) virus of approximately 7900 base pairs. DNA sequencing techniques have facilitated HPV typing and characterization, with each type formally defined as distinct by having less than 90 percent DNA base-pair homology with any another HPV type . There are over 40 HPV types that infect the anogenital area.
HPV GENOTYPES AND RISK OF CANCER
HPV genotypes’ association with cancer risk varies, and is reviewed below.
Cervical cancer — There is a broad separation of HPV types based on their associated risk of cervical cancer:
●High-risk – This includes HPV 16, 18, 31, 33, 35, 39, 45, 51, 52, 56, 58, 59, and 68To continue reading this article, you must log in with your personal, hospital, or group practice subscription. For more information on subscription options, click below on the option that best describes you:
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- HPV GENOTYPES AND RISK OF CANCER
- Cervical cancer
- Head and neck cancer
- Anal cancer
- Penile cancer
- MOLECULAR PATHOGENESIS
- HPV proteins
- Role of p53 protein
- Role of retinoblastoma protein
- Other proteins
- HIV infection
- Progression from immortalization to malignancy
- RISK FACTORS FOR HPV INFECTION
- DETECTING HPV
- Indications for testing
- SOCIETY GUIDELINE LINKS
- INFORMATION FOR PATIENTS