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Medline ® Abstract for Reference 8

of 'Urine anion and osmolal gaps in metabolic acidosis'

Renal ammoniagenesis in humans with chronic potassium depletion.
Tizianello A, Garibotto G, Robaudo C, Saffioti S, Pontremoli R, Bruzzone M, Deferrari G
Kidney Int. 1991;40(4):772.
Renal ammonia production and distribution and ammonia precursor utilization were evaluated in eight patients with chronic potassium depletion (CPD) and aldosterone-producing adenoma and in 20 controls. In CPD, urinary ammonia excretion and ammonia added to renal venous blood were about twofold higher than in controls; thus, total ammonia production was significantly augmented (88.0 +/- 10.3 mumol/min.1.73 m2 vs. 45.0 +/- 2.6 in controls). Total ammonia production was inversely correlated with serum potassium and directly correlated with urine flow. Stepwise multiple regression analysis showed that both factors, mainly serum potassium, significantly influence ammonia production and account for 61.4% of variations in ammonia production. Renal extraction of glutamine was significantly increased (56.6 +/- 5.9 mumol/min.1.73 m2 vs. 34.6 +/- 3.1 in controls), and this could account for ammonia production. The ratio of urinary ammonia excretion to total ammonia production, an index of the intrarenal ammonia distribution, was similar in patients and controls, and was significantly correlated with urine pH and true renal blood flow (RBF). Stepwise multiple regression analysis showed that RBF, urine pH and urine flow also significantly affected ammonia distribution. However, these factors accounted for only 41.7% of variations in intrarenal ammonia partition, urine pH having a minor role. We conclude that in patients with CPD other factors besides urine pH, urine flow and RBF intervene in the ammonia partition between urine and blood.
Department of Internal Medicine, University of Genoa, Italy.