- Leslie M Rickey, MD, MPH
Leslie M Rickey, MD, MPH
- Associate Professor
- Yale School of Medicine
- Section Editors
- Robert L Barbieri, MD
Robert L Barbieri, MD
- Editor-in-Chief — Obstetrics, Gynecology and Women's Health
- Section Editor — General Gynecology and Female Reproductive Endocrinology
- Kate Macy Ladd Professor of Obstetrics, Gynecology and Reproductive Biology
- Harvard Medical School
- Linda Brubaker, MD, FACOG
Linda Brubaker, MD, FACOG
- Section Editor — Female Pelvic Medicine and Reconstructive Surgery
- Health Sciences Clinical Professor
- University of California, San Diego
- Jerome P Richie, MD, FACS
Jerome P Richie, MD, FACS
- Section Editor — Cancer of the Urethra, Penis, and Ureter; Urologic Surgery; Prostate Cancer
- Elliott Carr Cutler Professor of Surgery
- Harvard Medical School
A urethral caruncle is a benign fleshy outgrowth at the urethral meatus. It is the most common lesion of the female urethra, occurring primarily in postmenopausal women. The terms urethral caruncle, urethral prolapse, and urethral polyp are sometimes used interchangeably. Technically, urethral prolapse refers to mucosa that is circumferentially everted at the meatus, whereas urethral caruncle refers to eversion of only a portion of the distal urethra, often at the posterior edge.
This topic will review the pathogenesis, clinical manifestations, and management of urethral caruncles. Related topics on urethral prolapse in children and vulvovaginal atrophy are presented separately.
Subscribers log in hereLiterature review current through: Oct 2017. | This topic last updated: Oct 03, 2017.References
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- Cimentepe E, Bayrak O, Unsal A, et al. Urethral adenocarcinoma mimicking urethral caruncle. Int Urogynecol J Pelvic Floor Dysfunct 2006; 17:96.
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- Nakamoto T, Inoue Y, Ueki T, et al. Primary amelanotic malignant melanoma of the female urethra. Int J Urol 2007; 14:153.
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- Khatib RA, Khalil AM, Tawil AN, et al. Non-Hodgkin's lymphoma presenting as a urethral caruncle. Gynecol Oncol 1993; 50:389.
- Hammadeh MY, Thomas K, Philp T. Urethral caruncle: an unusual presentation of ovarian tumour. Gynecol Obstet Invest 1996; 42:279.
- Singh I, Hemal AK. Primary urethral tuberculosis masquerading as a urethral caruncle: a diagnostic curiosity! Int Urol Nephrol 2002; 34:101.
- Järvi OH, Marin S. Intestinal mucosal heterotopia of an urethral caruncle. Acta Pathol Microbiol Immunol Scand A 1982; 90:213.
- Arnold SJ, Goode R, Ginsburg A. Photostudies of urethral varices "hemorrhoids": a forgotten lesion. Urology 1978; 11:19.
- North American Menopause Society. The role of local vaginal estrogen for treatment of vaginal atrophy in postmenopausal women: 2007 position statement of The North American Menopause Society. Menopause 2007; 14:355.
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- CLINICAL MANIFESTATIONS
- Patient presentation
- Findings on physical examination
- Differential diagnosis
- Asymptomatic lesions
- Symptomatic lesions
- - Initial approach
- - Large or persistent lesions
- - Recurrrent lesions
- SUMMARY AND RECOMMENDATIONS