Urethral cancer in women
- Ralph Madeb, MD
Ralph Madeb, MD
- Assistant Professor of Urology
- Department of Urology
- University of Rochester School of Medicine and Dentistry
- Dragan Golijanin, MD
Dragan Golijanin, MD
- Director Section GU Oncology
- Urology Division, Brown University
- Edward Messing, MD, FACS
Edward Messing, MD, FACS
- Professor of Urology and Oncology
- University of Rochester School of Medicine and Dentistry
- Bridget F Koontz, MD
Bridget F Koontz, MD
- Assistant Professor of Radiation Oncology
- Duke University School of Medicine
- Section Editors
- Jerome P Richie, MD, FACS
Jerome P Richie, MD, FACS
- Section Editor — Cancer of the Urethra, Penis, and Ureter; Urologic Surgery; Prostate Cancer
- Elliott Carr Cutler Professor of Surgery
- Harvard Medical School
- W Robert Lee, MD, MS, MEd
W Robert Lee, MD, MS, MEd
- Section Editor — Prostate Cancer
- Professor of Radiation Oncology
- Duke University Medical Center
Primary urethral cancer is a rare malignancy in women . Unlike other tumors arising in the urinary tract, urethral cancer is more common in women than in men. Differences in anatomy and etiology lead to important differences in the clinical presentation, diagnosis, and treatment of urethral cancer in women compared to men.
The diagnosis and treatment of urethral cancer in women will be reviewed here. Urethral cancer in men is discussed separately. (See "Urethral cancer in men".)
The female urethra averages 3 to 4 cm in length. The proximal 30 percent is composed of transitional epithelium, while the distal 70 percent is stratified squamous epithelium.
The lymphatics of the distal one-third of the female urethra drain into the superficial or deep inguinal nodes, while the proximal two-thirds go into the pelvic lymph nodes (external and internal iliac, and obturator nodes).
EPIDEMIOLOGY AND RISK FACTORS
Urethral cancers are rare malignancies in women, but occur four times more frequently in women compared to men . Although some data suggest that squamous cell carcinomas (SCCs) are the predominant histologic type, this is not entirely clear.
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- EPIDEMIOLOGY AND RISK FACTORS
- CLINICAL PRESENTATION
- EVALUATION OF SUSPECTED DISEASE
- Staging system
- PRIMARY TREATMENT
- Superficial distal lesions
- - Surgery
- - Radiation therapy
- Proximal or bulky tumors
- POSTTREATMENT SURVEILLANCE
- TREATMENT OF RECURRENT OR METASTATIC DISEASE
- SUMMARY AND RECOMMENDATIONS