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Unipolar depression in adults: Treatment with surgical approaches

Paul E Holtzheimer, MD
Section Editor
Peter P Roy-Byrne, MD
Deputy Editor
David Solomon, MD


Unipolar major depression often does not respond to standard treatment with pharmacotherapy, psychotherapy, and noninvasive neuromodulation interventions such as electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) and transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS). This has led to investigation of invasive treatments that include:

Surgical implantation of devices

Vagus nerve stimulation (VNS)

Deep brain stimulation

Direct cortical stimulation


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Literature review current through: Sep 2016. | This topic last updated: Aug 13, 2015.
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