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Unipolar depression in adults: Management of highly resistant (refractory) depression

Michael Thase, MD
K Ryan Connolly, MD, MS
Section Editor
Peter P Roy-Byrne, MD
Deputy Editor
David Solomon, MD


Although numerous treatments are available for unipolar major depression (major depressive disorder), patients may be highly resistant (refractory) to many sequential treatment regimens, including multiple classes of antidepressants and adjunctive drugs, as well as electroconvulsive therapy and psychotherapy [1].

This topic reviews management and treatment of refractory depression. The epidemiology, assessment, prognosis, and treatment of resistant depression are discussed separately, as are the initial treatment of depression and clinical features and diagnosis of depression.

(See "Unipolar treatment resistant depression in adults: Epidemiology, risk factors, assessment, and prognosis".)  

(See "Unipolar depression in adults: Treatment of resistant depression".)

(See "Unipolar major depression in adults: Choosing initial treatment".)


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Literature review current through: May 2017. | This topic last updated: Mar 08, 2017.
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